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Die oströmische Monarchie in der ausgehenden Spätantike

, The Medieval Mediterranean 35 [Brill Academic Publishers, 2001]) which situates its origins in the immediate aftermath of the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.), would have to be taken into account. [19] The sources which provide plenty of information regarding military activities between the Byzantine and Persian rulers do not report any further details about Shirin or her involvement in state and church affairs for the time in between her reception of the True Cross in 614 and the final military campaign of Emperor Herakleios against Chosroe in 628. She

tradition that was part of the heritage of Byzantine culture, and in a more profound and deeper way a link to the classical past, which was abruptly ended after the reign of Emperor Herakleios and which obviously had to be restored. Nikephoros’s time, and especially when he wrote his history, at the end of the eighth century, was an epoch of great restoration. The Seventh Ecumenical Council had restored Orthodoxy in the Empire, and the Empire itself in the personality and acts of Eirene and Constantine VI was restored in its relation to society, the Church, and the

to let this knowledge influence his description of the mutual past of Muslims and Christians. Judged from their appearance, Regino was clearly able to characterize a significant distinction between the Saracens and the Christian nations in Byzantium and the Frankish Empire. At the beginning of the seventh century, as the abbot reports, King Dagobert I received an embassy from Constantinople, by which a request from the Byzantine emperor Herakleios was delivered: […] omnes Iudeos regni sui secundum fidem catholicam baptizare preciperet aut regno expelleret […].59 He

these events, namely the Syriac protocol of the meeting (= Syr I)³⁴ and a Syriac resume, which is a continuation of the Syr I ver- sion (= Syr II).³⁵ Even though the pro-Chalcedonian and the Syrian Orthodox pro-  Cf. Hathaway, Hierarchy (as footnote  above) .  A recent publication dedicated mainly to the religious policy of the Emperor Herakleios and the Patriarch Sergios of Constantinople has significantly contributed to our understanding of this encounter, as its author has evaluated a number of anti-Chalcedonian Syrian sources re- lative to this event, cf

The Christian Minorities in Turkey 1. The Muslim Conquest of Asia Minor (636-1461) Only a few years after the victorious campaign of the emperor Herakleios (610-641) against the Persians, the Arabs from 634 onward were invading Asia Minor, the territory of present-day Turkey. They at first conquered the upper regions on the Euphrates and Tigris, which make up the far east of Turkey. After the victory of the Arabs over the Byzantines on the Yarmuk (August 20th, 636), Syria with its capital Antiochia fell to the Arabs, in 638 also Palestine with Syria

seventh century. Stephanos, one of the last authors of astronomical works is said to have left Alexandria for Constantinople sometime after the accession of the emperor Hērakleios in 610 CE. Following the latter’s death (641 CE), all scientific came to a halt in Constantinople too. There is no similar study focused specifically on astronomy in Classical Antiquity. Therefore, a brief analysis is provided here. The selection of scholars is based on the list of “authors and writings on the motion and nature of the ‘stars,’ often very mathematical, and also often

a acks on the Capital City were mainly known to the Christian oikoumene a er the Fall of Constantinople: the onslaught of the joint army of Avars, Slavs and Persians in 626 under Emperor Herakleios, the a ack of the Arabs in 674–678 under Emperor Constantine Pogonatos, and another as- sault of the Arabs in 717 under Emperor Leo III the Isaurian.13 Though (11) During the offi ce of the Akathiston in the fi h week of the Great Lent, the prooemium “To the Mighty Leader in Ba le” is chanted in the beginning, then three times during the offi ce (a er

so called (second) continuation to the History of John of Antioch, which covered the period between the years 610-641. Cf. Фрейберг, Традиционное и новое, pp. 50-51, who noticed this multi-layered and multi-faceted image of Emperor Herakleios in her review of ninth-century Byzantine literature and its characteristics, including Nikephoros’s Short History as well. 3 Nikephoros emphasized that such ideals where considered worthy and desirable both by people in remote antiquity and by ‘everyone today’ (ὅπερ ἥδιστόν τε καὶ εὔχαρι ἀνθρώποις τοῖς πάλαι καὶ νῦν

Conclusion In later legend, Leo VI became the paradigmatic example of the Byzantine emperor who had personally mastered the knowledge necessary to administer the empire, but he did not invent the role. Choirosphaktes’s verses acclaiming the emperor’s familiarity with astronomy find a precedent in a poem of three centuries before, penned by George of Pisidia on the infant son of the emperor Herakleios, who shared his father’s name. The poet observes the child playing with a ball, which, he remarks, is not only good exercise for the body, but also precocious