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4 Comedy and English Society That comedy is potentially an agent of growth in a culture is not a simple truth, since no culture is uniform, and growth often results from conflict. I f Gibbon represents one facet of his age, Steme represents another; and there was also a 'preromantic' facet that expressed itself rather through the grotesque than the comic. All the same, to judge by nothing more than the numerous protests of those in high places, comedy from Chaucer to Joyce certainly played its part in the evolution of English society and English sensi

WOMAN ALONE IN ENGLISH SOCIETY by Richard WALL Women as household heads. The extent to which women head households, live entirely alone, or never marry are clearly key elements of the social structure of any society. It is somewhat surprising, therefore, to find that the phenomena have attracted very little attention in comparison with the attention given, for example, to the notion of the stem family. How frequently did women head households in past societies ? Information on the ages of the inhabitants is available only for nine somewhat diverse

in 1981
From the Eighteenth Century to the Children Act 1948
Series: Heritage
From Tudor Times to the Eighteenth Century
Series: Heritage

the Settlement of Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898), p. 161. 268 CATHEDRALS IN ENGLISH SOCIETY Cox thought that if "the byshopps earnestly see to the ministers" there was little need of new orders, "savinge that the cathedrall churches would be brought to some better frame touchinge exercise of learn- inge, whose exercyse now is onely in singinge and very little in aedi- fyinge."8 At Durham, Bishop Barnes found "an Augean stable . . . whose stink is grievous in the nose of God and of men and which to purge far passeth Hercules' labours." This was in

454 Literatur. Yinogradof f , Pau l , English Society in the eleventh cen- tury. Essays in english mediaeval history. (Oxford 1908.) XII und 599 S. Nur ein genauer Kenner der englischen Rechtsgeschichte, als welchen sich V i n o g r a d o f f schon wiederholt gezeigt hat, konnte mit so sicherem Griff das Jahrhundert herausfinden, das uns am besten nicht nur die Wandlung des Alten zum Neuen, sondern auch die beiden Stadien selbst, die durch den normannischen Einfluß geschieden sind, so deutlich zeigt. Es war ein glücklicher Gedanke des Ver- fassers, gerade

George II, 2 vols. (Trustees of the British Museum, 1885; reprint ed., London: Spink and Son, 1969). C H A P T E R T H R E E Going Dutch English Society in 1685 50 prereVoLuTionary engLand was elegant, impressive, and popular. It gave the impression that England had changed rapidly and profoundly since Camden’s day. In “the space of sixty or eighty years,” Gibson concluded, there had been “a strange alteration in the face of things.” Gibson noted that “the growth of trade, the increase of buildings, the number of inhabitants, do all make the appearance very

in 1688

Chapter 20 Obligations of the Church in English Society: Military Arrays of the Clergy, 1369-1418 Bruce McNab It has been said concerning the division of labor in the Middle Ages that knights fought, clergy prayed, and peasants worked. Like other such generalizations, this one is not altogether accurate. Certainly both knights and peasants could and did pray, and at least some clerks labored in the fields. But it was against the laws of the church and the traditions of society that a churchman, particularly one in major orders, should fight. A cleric

Judith A. Green , Forging the Kingdom. Power in English Society, 973–1189. 2017 Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 9780521158299 , £ 19,99 Mit diesem Buch gelingt es Judith Green, die Forschungserfahrung und Fachkenntnis mehrerer Jahrzehnte zu einer prägnanten Überblicksdarstellung der diversen Formen der Macht und deren Ausübung im mittelalterlichen England zu bündeln. Spezielles Augenmerk gilt dabei den verschiedenen Akteuren, die diese Macht entweder individuell, kollektiv oder qua Amt innehatten. In der Einleitung werden zunächst in gebotener Kürze