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10 Formulation of film formers Emulsion polymers (latexes) are the most commonly used film formers in the coating industry. This is particularly the case with aqueous emulsion paints that are used for home decoration. These aqueous emulsion paints are applied at room temperature and the latexes coalesce on the substrate, forming a thermoplastic film. Sometimes functional polymers are used for cross linking in the coating system. The polymer particles are typically submicron (0.1–0.5 µm). Generally speaking, there are two methods for preparation of polymer disper

2nd revised edition

Design and evaluation of a bioadhesive film for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride

The objective of the study was to develop a suitable trans-dermal delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride (PPL) via employing chitosan as a film former. Drug concentration uniformity, thickness, moisture uptake capacity and skin bioadhesion of the films were characterized. The effects of chitosan and PPL concentration and different penetration enhancers on the release and permeation profiles from the films were investigated. Skin irritation of the candidate film was evaluated. Chitosan film (PPL 2 mg cm-2, chitosan 2 %, m/m, cineol 10 %, m/m) was found nonirritant and achieved 88.2 % release after 8 hours in phosphate buffer. Significant high (p < 0.001) permeation of PPL through rat skin was obtained using this film compared to the film without enhancer (about 8 times enhancement factor), making it a promising trans-dermal delivery system for PPL.

be overcome in the formation of the oxide, but this relationship is not quantitative. This method worked so well on zirconium that it was also tried on several other metals3. From the plots of log E/A t vs. log /, Van Rysselberghe and his associates were able to divide the metals into three classes according to their ability to fit the empirical equation (1). a) The film formers (Al, Ti, Hf, Ta, Zr) all of which seemed to fit the empirical equation very well. b) Non-film formers (Cr, V) which did not fit the equation at all. There were several suggestions why

ingredients (salts, acids, other hydrocolloids) on the gums’ functionality and their application in different food matrices: gels, stabilizer, encapsulation, film former, and appe tite controller, to name a few. The following chapter on dairy systems by Allen Foegeding, Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti, and Xin Yang flows milk through different processing steps. Starting with the rheology and sensory evaluation of plain milk, the authors follow the pathway of fermentation and present in detail oscillatory data from solid cheese as well as semi- solid dairy products. The final part on

, Essential Chemistry for Formulations of Semisolid and Liquid Dosages, Academic Press, San Diego 2016, pp.71-72. 20. M. C. Gohel, S. A. Nagori, Fabrication of modified transport fluconazole transdermal spray containing ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® RS100 as film formers, AAPS PharmSciTech. 10 (2009) 684-691; DOI: 10.1208/s12249-009-9256-8. 21. H. J. Busscher, A. H. Weerkamp, H. C. Mei, A. W. Pelt, H. P. Jong and J. Arends, Measurement of the surface free energy of bacterial cell surfaces and its relevance for adhesion, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48 (1984) 980-983. 22. W

, Graystone JA. Chapter 3. Raw Materials for Wood Coatings (1) - Film Formers (Binders, Resins and Polymers), 53-94 and Chapter 5. Classification and Formulation of Wood Coatings, 137-154. In: Wood Coatings. Theory and practice. Elsevier; 2009; DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52840-7.00005-9. [8] Imam SH, Gordon SH, Mao L, Chen L. Environmentally friendly wood adhesive from a renewable plant polymer: characteristics and optimization. Polymer Degrad Stabil. 200;73(3):529-533. DOI: 10.1016/S0141-3910(01)00114-8. [9] Landry V, Blanchet P, Weathering resistance of opaque PVDF

tests show a good corrosion resistance of the alloys. On the other hand, the mechanical ductility gets worse. Tntrotinct.i on The corrosion properties of amorphous alloys have been intensively studied at room temperature (for a comprehensive overview see [1])- Amongst the investigated metal-metalloid glasses only those show an excellent corrosion resistance which contain a passive film former like chromium as metal and phosphorus as metalloid. On the other hand, phosphorus- containing metallic glasses show serious embrittlement at higher temperatures [2]. The

a white powder of small diameter particles of disproportionated calcium resinate was obtained. FORMULATION VARIABLES The composition of paints is shown in Table I. Several variables were considered: Type of soluble resinous materials WW rosin, disproportionated WW rosin, calcium resinate and disproportionated calcium resinate were selected as film formers. 2 C.A. Giüdice and J.C. Benitez Corrosion Reviews Table I Composition of the antifouling paints (solids by volume, %) Composition A Β C D Cuprous oxide 10.0 10.0 12.7 12.7 Zinc oxide 1.0 1.0 1.3 1

that, when applied to a substrate, forms a film possessing protective, decorative and/or other specific properties. This generic term is accompanied by a series of subsidiary terms by which coating materials can be classified. Nomenclature is conventionally based on • film former system, e.g. alkyd resin coating, PU coating, • function in a coating formulation, e.g. primer, filler, topcoat or • solvent content, e.g. low solid coating, high solid coating, powder coating, water-borne coating. The terms coating, coating material and paint are commonly used as synonyms