10 Formulation of filmformers
Emulsion polymers (latexes) are the most commonly used filmformers in the coating
industry. This is particularly the case with aqueous emulsion paints that are used for
home decoration. These aqueous emulsion paints are applied at room temperature
and the latexes coalesce on the substrate, forming a thermoplastic film. Sometimes
functional polymers are used for cross linking in the coating system. The polymer
particles are typically submicron (0.1–0.5 µm).
Generally speaking, there are two methods for preparation of polymer disper
Design and evaluation of a bioadhesive film for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride
The objective of the study was to develop a suitable trans-dermal delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride (PPL) via employing chitosan as a film former. Drug concentration uniformity, thickness, moisture uptake capacity and skin bioadhesion of the films were characterized. The effects of chitosan and PPL concentration and different penetration enhancers on the release and permeation profiles from the films were investigated. Skin irritation of the candidate film was evaluated. Chitosan film (PPL 2 mg cm-2, chitosan 2 %, m/m, cineol 10 %, m/m) was found nonirritant and achieved 88.2 % release after 8 hours in phosphate buffer. Significant high (p < 0.001) permeation of PPL through rat skin was obtained using this film compared to the film without enhancer (about 8 times enhancement factor), making it a promising trans-dermal delivery system for PPL.
be overcome in the formation of
the oxide, but this relationship is not quantitative.
This method worked so well on zirconium that it was also tried on
several other metals3. From the plots of log E/A t vs. log /, Van
Rysselberghe and his associates were able to divide the metals into
three classes according to their ability to fit the empirical equation (1).
a) The filmformers (Al, Ti, Hf, Ta, Zr) all of which seemed to
fit the empirical equation very well.
b) Non-filmformers (Cr, V) which did not fit the equation at all.
There were several suggestions why
(salts, acids, other hydrocolloids) on the gums’
functionality and their application in different
food matrices: gels, stabilizer, encapsulation,
filmformer, and appe tite controller, to name a
few. The following chapter on dairy systems by
Allen Foegeding, Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti, and
Xin Yang flows milk through different processing
steps. Starting with the rheology and sensory
evaluation of plain milk, the authors follow the
pathway of fermentation and present in detail
oscillatory data from solid cheese as well as semi-
solid dairy products. The final part on
, Essential Chemistry for Formulations of Semisolid and Liquid Dosages, Academic Press, San Diego 2016, pp.71-72. 20. M. C. Gohel, S. A. Nagori, Fabrication of modified transport fluconazole transdermal spray containing ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® RS100 as filmformers, AAPS PharmSciTech. 10 (2009) 684-691; DOI: 10.1208/s12249-009-9256-8. 21. H. J. Busscher, A. H. Weerkamp, H. C. Mei, A. W. Pelt, H. P. Jong and J. Arends, Measurement of the surface free energy of bacterial cell surfaces and its relevance for adhesion, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48 (1984) 980-983. 22. W
, Graystone JA. Chapter 3. Raw Materials for Wood Coatings (1) - FilmFormers (Binders, Resins and Polymers), 53-94 and Chapter 5. Classification and Formulation of Wood Coatings, 137-154. In: Wood Coatings. Theory and practice. Elsevier; 2009; DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52840-7.00005-9.  Imam SH, Gordon SH, Mao L, Chen L. Environmentally friendly wood adhesive from a renewable plant polymer: characteristics and optimization. Polymer Degrad Stabil. 200;73(3):529-533. DOI: 10.1016/S0141-3910(01)00114-8.  Landry V, Blanchet P, Weathering resistance of opaque PVDF
tests show a good
corrosion resistance of the alloys. On the other hand, the
mechanical ductility gets worse.
The corrosion properties of amorphous alloys have been
intensively studied at room temperature (for a comprehensive
overview see )- Amongst the investigated metal-metalloid
glasses only those show an excellent corrosion resistance
which contain a passive filmformer like chromium as metal
and phosphorus as metalloid. On the other hand, phosphorus-
containing metallic glasses show serious embrittlement at
higher temperatures . The
a white powder of small diameter
particles of disproportionated calcium resinate was obtained.
The composition of paints is shown in Table I. Several variables were
Type of soluble resinous materials
WW rosin, disproportionated WW rosin, calcium resinate and
disproportionated calcium resinate were selected as filmformers.
C.A. Giüdice and J.C. Benitez Corrosion Reviews
Composition of the antifouling paints (solids by volume, %)
Composition A Β C D
Cuprous oxide 10.0 10.0 12.7 12.7
Zinc oxide 1.0 1.0 1.3 1
that, when applied to a substrate,
forms a film possessing protective, decorative and/or other specific properties.
This generic term is accompanied by a series of subsidiary terms by which coating materials can
be classified. Nomenclature is conventionally based on
• filmformer system, e.g. alkyd resin coating, PU coating,
• function in a coating formulation, e.g. primer, filler, topcoat or
• solvent content, e.g. low solid coating, high solid coating, powder coating, water-borne
The terms coating, coating material and paint are commonly used as synonyms