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338 Notizen Formation of Fusaric Acid by Fungi of the Genus Fusarium W.-U. Mutert, H. Lütfring, and W. Barz Lehrstuhl für Biochemie der Pflanzen der Universität Münster, Hindenburgplatz 55, D-4400 Münster D. Strack Botanisches Institut der Universität zu Köln Z. Naturforsch. 36 c, 338-339 (1981); received January 19, 1981 Fusaric Acid, Fusarium, Gibberella, Biosynthesis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography Among various Fusarium strains tested Gibberella fuji- kuroi (SAW) WR was shown to be a high producer of the phytotoxin fusaric acid. During studies

Chenopodolin Terpenes Fungus: Phoma chenopodiicola 29 3 Chloromonilicin Xanthones Fungus: Alternaria sonchi 39 4 α-Costic acid Terpenes Plant: Inula viscosa 42 5 Cycasin Azoxymethoxytetrahydropyrans Plant: Cycas revoluta 25 6 Cytochalasin A Cytochalasans Fungus: Pyrenophora semeniperda 35 7 Cytochalasin B Cytochalasans Fungus: Pyrenophora semeniperda 36,37 8 Fusaric acid Organic acids Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi 43 9 Gliotoxin 2,5-Diketopiperazines Fungus: Neosartorya pseudofischeri 38 10 Haemanthamine Alkaloids Plant: Narcissus pseudonarcissus “King

[1] Atkin O.K., Edwards E.J. & Loveys B.R. 2000. Response of root respiration to changes in temperature and its relevance to global warming. New Phytol. 147: 141–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00683.x [2] D’Alton A. & Etherton B. 1984. Effect of fusaric acid on tomato root hair membrane potentials and ATP levels. Plant Physiol. 74: 39–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.74.1.39 [3] DeGara L., de Pinto M.C. & Tommasi F. 2003. The antioxidant system vis-a-vis reactive oxygen species during plantpathogen interaction. Plan Physiol. Biochem. 41: 863

LF 610 E (WTW). The conductivity was estimated in 20 ml 2 % sucrose before and after addition of 1 mM fusaric acid (FA) using 0.2 g callus material. The respiratoric 0 2 - c o n s u m p t i o n of the callus cultures (0.3 g)were determined w i t h a 02~electrode (Clark, Rank Brother). The volume of the test solutions was 3 ml. Results Isolated microspores of the spring barley cultivar Dissa start to Genetic Manipulation in Plant Breeding © 1986 Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin • New York - Printed in Germany 316 divide in liquid culture (N6) but stop with

position 3 have been de­ tected in egg tar (K. Tsuji, 1976). Pyridines having short alkyl chains are common aroma constituents (Thomas et al., 1992; Nakamura et al., 1989). A fungal metabolite of some Fusarium species is the pathotoxin fusaric acid (5-/i-butylpicolinic acid, Fig.3). Fusaric acid was the first wilting toxin that was purified and identified. It was shown that its carboxyl group inhibits fungal spore germina­ tion and polyphenoloxidase activity whereas the butyl side chain affects water permeability. This influence on water permeability increases

. Spiteller. :ax: 0921/552671. tergent (Firestone and Pisano, 1979): It accumu­ lates within lysosomes, ruptures their m em branes and releases the contents of the cells into the cytoplasm. D ue to the structural analogy (Scheme 1) of this new natural com pound to fusaric acid (1), a well- known fungal m etabolite from Fusarium species, we suspected that 2 may develop similar biological activity as 1. Since several communications (B ecker and Pushkareva, 1972; Kern, 1972) de­ m onstrate that 1 inhibits polyphenoloxidase and thus quinone form ation, we investigated

) and RGLG4, were instrumental in control of FB1-triggered PCD by modulating the JA signalling pathway in A. thaliana ( Zhang et al. 2015 ). Fusaric acid (FA) treatment of tobacco suspension cells resulted in the production of several hallmarks of PCD, and activation of caspase-3-like protease modulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling molecule was responsible for the FA-induced PCD ( Jiao et al. 2013 ). Moreover, there is evidence that ROS production, down regulation of antioxidative enzymes activities, upregulation of lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial

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Phospholipid Bilayers. I. Poly­ morphic Forms of Dimyristoyl Lecithin . . . . Biochemistry Binding of Polylysine and Ethidium Bromide to Nucleosomal DNA: Comparison of Biochemical and Electron Microscopical Results ................. 3-Biosides Anthocyanin Carrying Structures in Specific Genotypes of Matthiola incana R. Br..................... Biosynthesis Purification of Chalcone Synthase from Tulip Anthers and Comparison with the Synthase from 900 Cosmos Petals ....................................................... 30 Formation of Fusaric Acid by Fungi of the Genus

isolation and identification of many potent natural phyto- toxins such as fumonisins, moniliformin, fusaric acid and trichothecenes (Abbas et al., 1991; Abbas and Boyette, 1992; Boyette et al., 1993; Jin et al., 1996). These natural toxins play important roles in inhibiting the physiological processes in cells sur- rounding the point of infection, enabling the spread of the disease (Feys and Parker, 2000; Staskawicz et al., 2001). The natural product 2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (AhG) (Fig. 1A) was isolated from the fungal pa- thogen Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. NRRL 18883

mediates resistance to the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in the model host Arabidopsis thaliana, Austr. Plant Pathol., 2006, 35, 581–591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AP06060 [67] Abbas H.K., Boyette C.D., Hoagland R.E., Phytotoxicity of Fusarium, other fungal isolates, and of the phytotoxins fumonisin, fusaric acid and moniliformin to jimsonweed, Phytoprotect., 1995, 76, 17–25 http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/706081ar [68] Doehlert D.C., Knutson C.A., Vesonder R.F., Phytotoxic effects of fumonisin B1 on maize seedling growth, Mycopathol., 1994, 127, 117–121 http