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in diagnosis and treatment. Ostomy/Wound Management. 1999;45(8):23-40. Kingsley A. A proactive approach to wound infection. Nurs Stand. 2001;15(30):50-58. Cutting KF, White R. Defined and refined: criteria for identifying wound infection revisited. British Journal of Community Nursing. 2004;9(3):6-15. Gilchrist B. Taking a wound swab. Nurs Times. 2000;96(4):2. Elsayed S, Gregson BD, Lloyd T, Crichton M, Church LD. Utility of gram stain for the microbiological analysis of burn wound surfaces. Archives of pathology and laboratory medicine. 2003

what they do on a regular basis, making it difficult to keep proficient in this area. This trend has cut cost but has left hospital and satellite laboratories with limited expertise to perform the most basic STAT microbiology test: Gram stains on primary specimens such as cerebrospinal fluids and wounds. All tests, such as Gram stains, performed by a certified laboratory have to participate in external quality control in the USA and many other countries [ 2 ]. These are challenges sent by approved agencies and compare results of different laboratories that perform

Über den Farbstoff der Gramfärbung von Bakterien On the Pigment of the Gram Staining of Bacteria M. J. Volz-de Lecea Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Karlsruhe Z. Naturforsch. 33b, 1525-1526 (1978); eingegangen am 4. Juli 1978 Gram Staining, Crystal Violet Triiodid Tris-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-carbenium-triiodid, a salt of crystal violet, is determined as probable structure of the Gram Staining of Bacteria. A mechanism of it is proposed based on the chemical properties of this salt. Durch Mischung der in der Gramfärbung von Bakterien

medicine such as surgical pathology and microbiology in that it involves the inherent judgment of the professional at the time of the test interpretation. It is therefore more subjective than most clinical chemistry tests. This subjective nature makes it challenging to define errors in each phase and accurately document their incidence. Anatomic pathologists have documented the difficulty of establishing agreement on cause of errors in cancer diagnosis [ 6 ]. The Gram stain is an example of a microbiology test that requires interpretation by the medical laboratory

Life with the Pneumococcus " . . . et j 'ai connu un homme qui prouvait, par de bonnes raisons, qu'il ne faut jamais dire: 'une telle personne est morte d'une fièvre et d'une fluxion sur la poitrine'; 'Elle est morte de quatre médicins et de deux apothicaires. ' " Molière, L'Amour de Medicin Acte II, Scène II 1 The Gram Stain and the Etiology of Lobar Pneumonia: An Historical Note A •ZXlthough the historical facts concerning the etiology of lobar pneumonia and Gram's original work on the widely used stain which now bears his name are well

amniotic fluid (AF) tests with the best diagnostic accuracy for predicting intrauterine infection/inflammation (IUI) in patients with clinical suspicion of chorioamnionitis. Study design: This is a retrospective study of 34 pregnant women who presented with uterine tenderness, maternal fever, maternal tachycardia, and/or fetal tachycardia and underwent AF analysis. IUI diagnosis was based on placental histology, positive AF bacterial cultures, and/or Gram stain. Result: Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between IUI and AF glucose. Glucose

citrate utilization were negative, but gelatin liquefaction was positive. Table 1 Physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain C. Test item Result Test item Result Gram staining - Lactose fermentation - Cell shape Rod Citrate utilization test - H 2 S production - Indole test - Motility No Nitrate reduction - Aerobism + Ammonia production - Oxidase + Gelatin liquefaction + Glucose fermentation + Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme - Sucrose fermentation + Arabinose fermentation - Mannitol + Inositol - Sorbitol - Rhamnose - Melibiose - Amygdalin - The 16S rRNA

, urinalysis, Gram stains). Forty-seven partici- pants attended training sessions and completed a questionnaire. The participants’ overall perception was: 1) the software was superior to formal lectures for learning image-based laboratory tests (43 partici- pants, 92%); 2) the software would enhance job per- formance (43 participants, 92%); 3) more subjects should be taught using software (40 participants, 85%); and 4) the software helped participants learn new materials (38 participants, 81%). Considering that 79% of the participants were novice computer users, it is

the typical definition of 72 h of age [ 7 ]. Infants included met either of the following criteria: (1) non-traumatic LP, or (2) in case of traumatic LP, either (a) positive CSF culture or gram stain or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria or viruses; or (b) physician decision to treat the newborn infant with a 21-day course of antibiotics (irrespective of laboratory findings). Exclusion criteria included: A traumatic LP (defined as CSF red blood cell [RBC] count >500 × 10 6 /L). LP performed solely for suspected metabolic disorders. Routine LP performed

resolution may be prolonged for years and lesions can be calcified or persist as cysts. The abscess contains cellular protein residues and a brown fluid called “anchovy sauce”, mainly composed of necrotic hepatocytes. The trophozoites are seen in the microscopy of the aspirate in less than 20% of the cases [ 11 ] and are often found only in the peripheral parts of the abscess, invading and destroying the surrounding tissue [ 12 ]. In abscesses composed of bacteria and polymorphonuclear cells, they are usually apparent in the Gram staining. The detection of antigen and