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., Weintrob, A. C., Chun, H., Landrum, M. L., Ganesan, A., . . . Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, H. I. V. W. G. (2010). Outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the context of universal access to healthcare: the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study. AIDS Res Ther, 7 , 14. doi: 10.1186/1742-6405-7-14 7. Miailhes, P., Trabaud, M. A., Pradat, P., Lebouche, B., Chevallier, M., Chevallier, P. & Trepo, C. (2007). Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV coinfection: relationship

Weintourismus Norbert Haart 1 Einführung Fast alle deutschen Tourismusregionen haben sich in den 1980er- und 1990er- Jahren auf eine - manchmal verzweifelte - Suche nach regionaler Identität oder Identifizierbarkeit, unverwechselbarer Marktpositionierung und regionaltypischen Produkten begeben. Es wurden alte Schafrassen nachgezüchtet, Tennen in Kon- zertsäle umgewandelt und bäuerliche Hausmannskost zu kulinarischen Erlebnissen veredelt. Dahinter steht der Gedanke der Regionalisierung, der Erfahrbarmachung von unterschiedlichen Wirklichkeiten (Authentizität

Forum for Health Economics & Policy Volume 10, Issue 2 2007 Article 3 (ECONOMICS OF THE HIV EPIDEMIC) The Effect of State Cost Containment Strategies on the Insurance Status and Use of Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for HIV Infected People Arkadipta Ghosh∗ Neeraj Sood† Arleen Leibowitz‡ ∗Pardee RAND Graduate School, aghosh@mathematica-mpr.com †RAND Corporation, nsood@sppd.usc.edu ‡University of California, Los Angeles, arleen@ucla.edu The Effect of State Cost Containment Strategies on the Insurance Status and Use of Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for HIV Infected

14 Qualitätsmanagement im Landtourismus von Norbert Haart und Dipl.-Geogr. Peter Herrmann, Europäisches Tou- rismus Institut GmbH an der Universität Trier 14.1 Wandel des Marktes als Herausforderung Urlaubszeit in Europa bedeutet vor allem Reisezeit: Im Jahr 1995 wurde mit 1,5 Milliarden Reisen (mind, eine Übernachtung) ins In- oder Ausland von den 540 Millionen Europäern (über 14 Jahre) ein neuer Rekord aufgestellt. Mehr als ein Viertel (27%) aller Auslandsübernachtungen der Europäer kommen aus dem deutschen Quellmarkt, der damit die Spitzenposition ein

HIV-1 Tat on the survival and differentiation of vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells, 17 November 2011. 21. Giralt M, Domingo P, Guallar JP, Rodriguez de la Concepción ML, HIV-1 infection alters gene expression in adipose tissue, which contributes to HIV-1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy, 2006. 22. Frank Palella;Rose Baker;Anne Moorman;Joan Chmiel;Kathleen Wood;John Brooks;Scott Holmberg; Mortality in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Changing Causes of Death and Disease in the HIV Outpatient Study 2006/09/01. 23. Nina Friis-Møller, Rodolphe

Abstract

In the past years there have been numerous discoveries regarding treatment of patients with HIV. If at first the doctors watched as patients live longer, now we want these patients to live better with regimens potent, safe, individualized and without side effects. HAART has revolutionized “the world HIV” and caused a significant reduction in mortality, and morbidity associated with HIV-related opportunistic infections. However, side effects associated with HAART, metabolic toxicity (such as abnormal fat distribution, abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism, and bone loss) and the large number of pills led to decreased patient adherence.

Pediatr 2005;164:271–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-004-1610-y [8] Innes S, Levin L, Cotton M. Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV-infected children on HAART South Afr J HIV Med. 2009; 10: 76–80 [9] POPIELSKA J Lipodystrofia u dzieci zakażonych HIV. Pol Merk Lek, 2008; 143, 408–413 [10] Hazra R, Siberry G, Mofenson L. Growing Up with HIV: Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection. An Rev Med 2010; 61: 169–185 http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.050108.151127 [11] Worell CJ Metabolic complication of antiviral therapy. in

among the HIV infected individuals [ 30 ], even though the eradication of HIV from the CNS remains a challenging task. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) enhances the survival rate among the AIDS patients, but due to inability to cross the BBB, incidence of neuroAIDS during the disease progression may be envisaged [ 31 ]. Upon administration, ART mostly bound with plasma proteins, further limiting their available fractions for the CNS [ 32 ]. The complex structure of the BBB and poor pharmacokinetic profile, coupled with weak bio-distribution of

atherogenic risk (AR) results from changes in lipid metabolism associated with severity, duration and stages of infection. The high prevalence of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in patients infected with HIV-1 may be exacerbated by highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) [8, 9]. Different degrees of lipodystrophy occur in these patients along with a decrease in LDL receptor expression, which could lead to increased oxidation of LDL particles and the consequent development of atherosclerosis [10, 11]. Several classes of antiretrovirals have followed the development of

of ARVs in late 1996 and the sharp increase in risky sexual behavior that ensued. Further, following ARVs, testers take more risks while non-testers take fewer risks. The proportion of testers remains stable, which was ambiguous a priori. To the extent that ARVs may induce changes in the composition of the testing and non-testing groups, such effects do not seem to affect the results. KEYWORDS: HIV, AIDS, testing, HAART, ARV, risk, UAI ∗I am indebted to Gordon Anderson, David Bishai, Don Dewees, William Evans, Andrew Francis, Dino Gerardi, Anupam Jena, Emily Oster