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six extracts showed similarly strong activity against HEp-2 cells with IC 50 values in a range of 19.7–79.6 μg/mL, in a concentration dependent manner ( Figure 2 , Table 1 ), although the roots were found to be more active than the aerial parts against HEp-2 cells ( Figure 2 ). Digitalis davisiana RE showed the highest cytotoxicity with a IC 50 value of 19.7 μg/mL. At 400 μg/mL concentration, D. grandiflora RE and D. viridiflora RE also showed high cytotoxicity against HEp-2 cell line: cell viability was about 10% for both extracts. The IC 50 values of the

are shown in Figure 3 . In general, the pyrimidine derivatives exhibit good cytotoxic activity against various cell lines like melanoma, colon cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer [ 18 ]. The results also indicate that the compounds are strongly inhibitory against the Hep-2 cell line. Based on the substitution on the phenyl ring, the cytotoxic activity decreases in the order of 4-F>H>2-OCH 3 >4-Br>4-Cl>4-CH 3 >3-NO 2 . It is evident that compound 5b with lipophilic fluorine substitution exhibits the most potent inhibitory activity with a cytotoxicity of 70

out three times. Discussion In the present study, in vitro anti-ADV activity of black tea hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using HEp2 cell line. Based on our results, the CC 50 value and the IC 50 value of the extract (on ADV) were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 μg/mL, respectively. The SI value of the extract on ADV was 25.06. So, this extract seems to have strong activity against ADV. The recommended IC 50 value, characteristic of herbal extract against infectious diseases, is less than 100 μg/mL [ 42 ]. The extract used in this study revealed an IC 50 value

, showed poor performance between 2006 and 2008. The rate of acceptable answers for centriole and Golgi patterns were no higher than 35% when they were polyspecific. We dis- covered that some institutions confused the term ‘centriole’ pattern with ‘mitotic spindle apparatus (MSA-1)’ pattern. We have been submitting samples of ‘diffuse cytoplasmic with nucleolar’ pattern continuously since 2005, but the returned results have not been consistent. We assumed that the HEp- 2 cell line had technical problems in the detection of cyto- plasmic patterns (4) because large number

. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 207: 110-116. Cheng B., Yang X., Xiang L.A., Gao B. & Liu X. 2010. Arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis of Hep-2 cell line through modulating intracellular glutathione (GSH) level. Auris Nasus Larynx 37: 89-94. Daraie B., Pourahmad J., Hamidi-Pour N., Hosseini M-J., Shaki F. & Soleimani M. 2012. Uranyl acetate induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse in the human dermal fibroblast primary cells. Iran. J. Pharm. Res. 11: 495-501. Eskandari M.R., KhaliliFard J., Hosseini M-J. & Pourahmad J. 2012. Glutathione mediated

− Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conservation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, ISBN 978-94-015-9962-7, 228 95. Sakamoto R. L., Ito M. and Kawakubo N., 2012 − Contribution of pollinators to seed production as revealed by differential pollinator exclusion in Clerodendrum trichotomum (Lamiaceae), PLOS ONE , 7, 168, 153-165. 96. Satyavani K., Gurudeeban S., Ramanathan T. and Balasubramanian T., 2012 − Toxicity study of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Suaeda monoica on Hep-2 cell line, Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology , 4, 35-38. 97

connection with infections. The positive predictive value for a manifest systemic autoimmune disease is, therefore, extremely low for a randomly verified ANA titer (<5%), which is why the ANA diagnosis should only be carried out selectively if there is an appropriate suspicion. The gold standard for the detection of ANA is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using the HEp-2 cell line and its variants, which is used for screening. This method, however, does not only detect autoantibodies directed against the cell nucleus, but also autoantibodies that recognize other

benzimidazole ligands against hep-2cell line. J Fac Pharm 2007;36:21–30. 21. Gümüş F, Algül Ö. DNA Binding Studies with cis-dichlorobis[5(6) non/chlorosubstituted-2-hydroxymethylbenzimidazole]platinum(II) Complexes. J Inorg Biochem 1997;68:71–4. 10.1016/S0162-0134(97)00041-X 22. Gökçe M, Utku S, Gür S, Özkul A, Gümüş F. Synthesis, in vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activity of cis-[Pt(R)(- and S)+(-2-α-hydroxybenzylbenzimidazole) 2 Cl 2 ] complexes. Eur J Med Chem 2005;40:135–41. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2004.09.017 15694648 23. Phillips MA. The formation of 2-substitutedbenzimidazoles

, Balasubramanian T. Toxicity study of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Suaeda monoica on Hep-2 cell line. Avicenna J Med Biotech 2012;4:35–3. 15. Gupta Mukherjee S, O’Claonadha N, Casey A, Chambers G. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study of silver nanoparticle on two mammalian cell lines. Toxicol In-Vitro 2012;26: 238–51. 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.12.004 16. Ostad SN, Dehnad S, Nazari ZE, Fini ST, Mokhtari N, Shakibaie M, et al. Cytotoxic activities of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in parent and tamoxifen-resistant T47D human breast cancer cells and their combination

cases by indi- rect immunofluorescence (IF) on unfixed frozen sec- tions of kidney, or on the Hep 2 cell line (3). The reactant for the AMA reaction is known as M2, and the principal component was shown after molecular cloning to be directed against the 74kDa E2 subunit of an enzyme of the 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex (2-OADC), pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC); other en- zymes of the 2-OADC family which contribute to the im- munofluoresence AMA reaction are included in the M2 antigen complex (4). Since IF for AMA is labour inten- sive and lacks specificity as