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1 Introduction The federal government’s obligations under the Affordable Care Act depend, to a substantial degree, on whether employers make health insurance available to their employees. Depending on their family’s income, workers who are not offered health insurance through their employer may be eligible for large subsidies to buy health insurance through a state-level exchange, or through Medicaid enrollment. Both of these options are financed in large part by the federal government. This federal obligation is offset to some degree by increased tax revenues

1 Introduction Many countries have experienced the combination of rising life expectancy and declining birth rates, a phenomenon commonly known as “aging population.” The United Nations (2012) recommends that these countries strengthen its public health insurance in order to meet on going health care needs. The report suggests there is a need for expanding public health insurance to fill the gap in private financing of health care services in many countries. However, the overall effect of increasing public health insurance benefits on welfare is not clear. On

1 Introduction The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) aims at improving health insurance plan affordability and healthcare service accessibility. As one of major provisions, the ACA created the Health Insurance Exchange (HIX) or so-called the marketplace in each state. By February 2013, all states are required to establish HIXs in the format of state-based, federally-facilitated, or state-federal partnership. ‘State Health Insurance Marketplace Types’, Qualified

The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy Contributions Volume 11, Issue 2 2011 Article 8 INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND HEALTHCARE Data Impediments to Empirical Work on Health Insurance Markets Leemore Dafny∗ David Dranove† Frank Limbrock‡ Fiona Scott Morton∗∗ ∗Northwestern University, †Northwestern University, ‡Northwestern University, ∗∗Yale School of Management, Recommended Citation Leemore Dafny, David Dranove, Frank Limbrock

Forum for Health Economics & Policy Volume 13, Issue 1 2010 Article 1 (FRONTIERS IN HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH) Health Care, Health Insurance, and the Distribution of American Incomes Gary Burtless∗ Pavel Svaton† ∗The Brookings Institution, †l’Ecole d’économie de Toulouse, Health Care, Health Insurance, and the Distribution of American Incomes∗ Gary Burtless and Pavel Svaton Abstract Cash income offers an incomplete picture of the resources available to finance household con- sumption. Most American families are covered by

Forum for Health Economics & Policy Volume 13, Issue 2 2010 Article 13 (HEALTH ECONOMICS) Health Risk, Income, and Employment-Based Health Insurance M. Kate Bundorf∗ Bradley Herring† Mark V. Pauly‡ ∗Stanford University, †Johns Hopkins University, ‡University of Pennsylvania, Health Risk, Income, and Employment-Based Health Insurance∗ M. Kate Bundorf, Bradley Herring, and Mark V. Pauly Abstract While many believe that an individual’s health plays an important role in both their willing- ness and

1 Introduction Although risky decisions made by young adults can have considerable impacts on their immediate health and other social and economic outcomes that may affect their future, little is known about how health insurance coverage affects young adults’ attitudes toward risk. Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and risky health behaviors is also particularly important in light of the fact that extending dependent coverage to young adults is a major component of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). On the one hand, the existing