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://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/943516 27. Debnath T, Park SR, Kim DH, Jo JE, Lim BO. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activites of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts. Molecules 2013; 18:9293-9304. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18089293 28. Yeon-Ran K. Immunomodulatory activity of the water extract from medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Mycobiology 2005; 33:158-162. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.3.158 29. Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C, Heo MS. Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease

isobutyrate; capric acid, caprylic acid, myristic acid and inositol angelates [ 3 , 4 ]; luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, artemetin, 2,5-di-hydroxy-3, 6, 7, 4,5 -pentamethoxyflavone, apigenin-5-0-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-3-methyl, luteolin-3-methylether-4 -0-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-4 -0-β-D-glucopyranoside; epirfiedelanol, friedelin; scopoletin, isoscopoletin and scopolin [[ 5 , 6 ][ 7 ]]. In this research, the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of I. cappa root extracts were investigated based on its utilization in traditional medicine

of diseases, especially when the host defence mechanism has to be acquired under the conditions of impaired immune responsiveness [ 1 ]. Consequently, we focused one of the objectives of our research group at investigating the immunomodulatory potentials of medicinal plants. In previous studies, we highlighted the immunomodulatory activity of some plant extracts [ 2 , 3 ]. In our continuous search of the immunomodulatory activity of Cameroonian medicinal plants, the present work was designed to determine the immunomodulatory activity of five selected Cameroonian

Chemistry and Immunomodulatory Activity of Frankincense Oil Botros R. Mikhaeil*, Galal T. Maatooq, Farid A. Badria, and Mohamed M. A. Amer Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt. E-mail: botros113426@yahoo.com. * Author for correspondence and reprint requests Z. Naturforsch. 58c, 230Ð238 (2003); received July 31/November 4, 2002 The yield of steam distillation of frankincense essential oil (3%); and its physicochemical constants were determined. Capillary GC/MS technique was used for the analysis of the oil

Wistar albino rats with lead acetate demonstrated improvements in biochemical, hematological parameters as well as protective effects on various organs such as the liver and kidneys and tissues like blood [13]. Also, various studies have reported the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed Wistar albino rats [14, 15]; however, no studies have been done in normal rats as depicted by its use in the various local communities in Uganda. Also, previous studies on the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera were done

Mer- cury 300 and JEOL GX-500 NMR spectrometers; δ values are reported as ppm relative to TMS in the convenient solvent. LC/ESI-MS and HRESI- MS analyses were recorded on LCQ (Finnigan MAT, Bremen, Germany) and LTQ-FT-MS mass spectrometers (Thermo Electron 400, Waltham, MA, USA), respectively. UV analyses of pure samples were recorded, separately, as MeOH so- Phytoconstituents of Jatropha curcas L. Leaves and their Immunomodulatory Activity on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Chicks Howaida I. Abd-Allaa, Fatma A. Moharramb,*, Ahmed H. Gaaraa

Abstract

Antiviral drug Kagocel is widely used in Russia for prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infection, influenza, and herpes. The drug belongs to the group of interferon inductors. The article contains the review and analytical evaluation of safety of antiviral drug Kagocel. Kagocel is registered in the Russian Federation and some CIS countries and refers to the group of interferon inducers. This is a chemical compound of carboxymethyl cellulose and low-molecular natural polyphenol gossypol common in cotton-plant (Gossypium spp.) which protects the plant from depredators and diseases. Authors pay a special attention to the analysis and generalization of data from preclinical and clinical studies including the control of related substances. Absence of free gossypol impurities guaranteed by highly sensitive and specific quality control methods. Preclinical studies data was analyzed and the results were presented with focus on reproductive safety of Kagocel® in immature and mature animals.. No negative effect on animals’ reproductive function was revealed including spermatogenesis and generative function. No long-term product effect on reproductive system or next generations of animals was recorded both at therapeutic doses and at doses 10 times their exceeding. The safety of the drug demonstrated on data obtained from numerous clinical trials, including those involving children aged 2 years and older. Th is confirms the safety of antiviral drug Kagocel usage in clinical practice, including pediatrics.

COSY and HMBC correlations for compound 2 . Fig. 5: Mass fragmentation pattern of compound 2 . Worldwide, several laboratories are showing growing interest in the search for natural substances with immunomodulatory activities that can be used in the treatment of some chronic diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, transplantation rejection, cancer, and atherosclerosis [ 21 ], [ 22 ]. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, and macrophages constitute professional phagocytes used as fist line of defense during an innate immune response. Phagocytosis is

., Albert R.: Role of macrolide therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Interantional Journal of COPD, 3, 331, 2008. 9. Rubin B.K., Henke M.O.: Immunomodulatory activity and effectiveness of macrolides in chronic airway disease. Chest, 125, 70, 2004. 10. Targowski T., Jahnz-Różyk K.: Immunomodulatory properties of macrolides. Pol. Merk. Lek., 149, 408, 2008. 11. Ungureanu V.: Macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramines (MLS): mechanisms of action and resistance. Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol., 55, 131, 2010. 12. Zarogoulidis P. et al.: Macrolides: from in

been well documented. Decursin, coumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 6-nitro-7-hydroxycoumarin,7-hydroxy-4-methyl-coumarin, scopoletin, and esculetin are among the best-known examples of pro-apoptotic coumarin derivatives [ 14 , 15 ]. However, the molecular pro-apoptotic mechanism of action is not well understood. In the search for novel metabolites to serve as candidates for further biological assessment, the coumarins from the petroleum ether extract of P. luxurians were evaluated for their immunomodulatory activity. 2 Experimental 2.1 Plant material The aerial parts of