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C H A P T E R II Death of an Islamic Empire THE CONTEXT OF Moorish weakness renders more explicable Valen­ cia's stunning fall. In a moment of insane fratricide Islam left her doors open to the conqueror. Though Valencia was technically not a kingdom, the Christians' use of the term rex or king for an Almo- had sayyid does convey her isolation and furnishes a clue to the ma­ laise of contemporary Spanish Islam.1 A quarter-century before the Valencian crusade, Islamic Andalusia stood solid as a rock. Sharing an imperial serenity which evokes images of the

Stefan Heidemann Introduction: Transregional and Regional Elites – Connecting the Early Islamic Empire The Project of the ‘Early Islamic Empire at Work’ Our knowledge about the working of the early Islamic Empire is still rather im- balanced. The caliphate ruled an expanse from Central Asia to North Africa for about 300 years until the 940s, creating in the process a distinct civilization and culture. Research on the early Islamic Empire, and consequently our knowledge thereof, is still dominated by the perspective of the sources.Whilst unsurprising, the tendency

Ahmad Khan An Empire of Elites: Mobility in the Early Islamic Empire Abstract: This study uses prosopographies pertaining to political elites from Khurāsān in order to examine patterns of social mobility, professional circula- tion, and structures of imperial rule in the ʿAbbāsid Empire during the 8th–9th centuries. It suggests that the early ʿAbbāsid Empire was dominated by informal patterns of rule that depended disproportionately on personal retainers and elite gubernatorial and military families to maintain structures of an otherwise bu- reaucratic

CHAPTER SIX Egypt within Islamic Empires, 639–969 Cairo is a city of mosques. The first large-scale building that one sees upon arriving in the city is the Muhammad Ali mosque built on an outcropping of the Muqattam hills. It towers over the city’s other buildings and, as intended, projected the power of Egypt’s new dy- nast. Although it was built in the nineteenth century and therefore is not one of Egypt’s early mosques, its dominance reminds all that Egypt, in spite of its magnificent pharaonic past and its Graeco- Roman-Christian heritage, is at heart a

in Egypt

Persian language that would fi t the pattern— namely words that end in “- shan”—and they each offer a line: Chon arez- e to mah nabashad roshan / Even moon is not as bright as your face; Manand- e rokhat gol nabovad dar golshan / No fl ower in any garden is as beautiful as your face; Mozhgant hami gozar konad az joshan / Your eyelashes pierce through any armor . . . ; 2 The Persian Presence in the Early Islamic Empires Resisting Arabic Literary Imperialism (750– 1258) Resisting Arabic Literary Imperialism (750– 1258) 71 To which the young man instantly adds

247 c o n c l u s io n Christians and Christian Law in the Making of the Medieval Islamic Empire This book began from the premise that a historiography of the medieval Middle East focused solely on the formation of Islamic society, institutions, and traditions leaves a significant swath of the region’s history obscure. From the mid- seventh century to the end of the ninth, the Islamic caliphate was an empire par excellence: a hierarchical polity ruling an enormous territory of great religious and cultural diversity, in which the Muslim ruling elite can

141 chapter 7 The Great Islamic Empires of the Early Modern Era, ca. 1500–1700 He was Adam’s heir, not Muhammad’s or the Caliphs’, Abul Fazl told him; his legitimacy and authority sprang from his descent from the First Man, the father of all men. No single faith could contain him, nor any geographical territory. Greater than the king of kings who ruled Persia before the Muslims came, superior to the ancient Hindu notion of the Chakravartin—the king whose chariot wheels could roll everywhere, whose movements could not be obstructed—he was the Universal

Simon Gundelfinger & Peter Verkinderen The Governors of al-Shām and Fārs in the Early Islamic Empire – A Comparative Regional Perspective Abstract: This paper compares patterns of gubernatorial appointments in early Islamic al-Shām and Fārs until the reign of al-Muʿtamid. The provincial, sub- provincial and super-provincial governors it identifies are listed in the attached appendix. By examining their backgrounds, the paper locates appointment patterns. Finally, the patterns in both provinces are compared and their diver- gence interpreted as an indication of an