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Abstract

In a note from around 1769, Kant raised the question of why synthetic judgments cannot become analytic. He did not, however, suggest an answer. In a 1789 essay, J. G. E. Maaß published an exemplary criticism of this division of judgments by pointing out that it was relative. Kant entrusted one of his disciples, J. Schultz, with the task of defending the absolute nature of the distinction. Schultz responded in 1790, using annotations by Kant himself. Moreover, in Schultz’s 1789 Examination, there are some remarks which anticipate certain misrepresentations Maaß would continue to make in his new essay in response to Schultz in 1791. Focusing on the reconstruction of this debate, the paper seeks to identify how Kant justified the fact that his division of judgments was not arbitrary, even if the justification was never explicit.

Abstract

Background: Cement augmentation of pedicle screws increases fixation strength in an osteoporotic spine. This study was designed to determine the cement distribution and the correlation between the pull-out strength of the augmented screw and the cement volume within polyurethane (PU) foam.

Methods: Twenty-eight cannulated pedicle screws (6×45 mm) (Peter Brehm, Erlangen, Germany) with four holes at the distal end of the screw were augmented with the acrylic Stabilit ER Bone Cement Vertebral Augmentation System (DFine Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) and implanted into open-cell rigid PU foam (Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon Island, WA, USA) with a density of 0.12 g/cm3, resembling severe osteoporosis. Volumetric measurement of the cement with consideration of the distribution around the screws was done with multislice computed tomography scan (Somatom Definition, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Pull-out strength was tested with a servohydraulic system (MTS System Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA), and nonaugmented screws served as control. Pearson’s correlation coefficient with significance level α=0.05 and one-way analysis of variance test were used.

Results: We found a high (r=0.88) and significant (p<0.01) correlation between the cement volume and the pull-out strength, which increased by more than 5-fold with a volume of 3 ml. The correlation appeared linear at least up to 4 ml cement volume and failure always occurred at the cement-bone interface. The cement distribution was symmetric and circular around the most proximal hole, with a distance of 14 mm from the tip, and nearly 90% of the cement was found 6 mm distal and cranial to it. The 95% confidence interval for the relative amount of cement was 37%–41% within 2 mm of the most proximal hole.

Conclusion: Compared with the control, a cement volume between 2.0 and 3.0 ml increased the pull-out strength significantly and is relevant for clinical purposes, whereas a volume of 0.5 ml did not. A cement volume beyond 3.0 ml should further increase the pull-out strength because the correlation was linear at least up to 4.0 ml, but the possibility of in vivo cement leakage with increasing volume has to be considered. Pressure-controlled cement application might be a tool to avoid this complication. The cement almost completely penetrated the most proximal perforation.

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THEOLOGIA PRACTICA Zeitschrift für Praktische Theologie und Religionspädagogik herausgegeben von G E R T OTTO in Verbindung mit H.-D. Bastian · W. Bernet · G. Krause · M. Mezger W. Neidhard · D. Rössler · H. J. Schultz · H. Stock IV. JAHRGANG 1969 FURCHE-VERLAG Die Zeitschrift THEOLOGIA PRACTICA erscheint vierteljährlich. Sie kann durch jede Buchhandlung oder vom Verlag (Furche- Verlag, Hamburg 39, Postfach 5917) bezogen werden. Bezugspreise für jährlich 4 Hefte: 22,50 DM, Studentenabonne· ment 16,— DM, Einzelheft 6,80 DM, jeweils zuzüglich Porto

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THEOLOGIA PRACTICA Zeitschrift für Praktische Theologie und Religionspädagogik herausgegeben von G E R T O T T O in Verbindung mit H.-D. Bastian · W. Bernet · G. Krause · M. Mezger W. Neidhart · D. Rössler · H. J. Schultz · H. Stock III. J A H R G A N G 1968 FURCHE-VERLAG Die Zeitschrift THEOLOGIA PRACTICA erscheint vierteljährlich. Sie kann durch jede Buchhandlung oder vom Verlag (Furche- Verlag, Hamburg 59, Postfach 5917) bezogen werden. Bezugspreise für jährlich 4 Hefte: 22,50 DM, Studentenabonne- ment 16,- DM, Einzelheft 6,SO DM, jeweils

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THEOLOGIA PRACTICA Zeitschrift für Praktische Theologie und Religionspädagogik herausgegeben von G E R T OTTO in Verbindung mit H.-D. Bastian · W. Bernet · G. Krause · M. Mezger W. Neidhart · D. Rössler · H. J. Schultz · H. Stock V. JAHRGANG 1970 FURCHE-VERLAG Die Zeitschrift THEOLOCIA PRACTICA erscheint vierteljährlich. Sie kann durch Jede Buchhandlung oder vom Verlag (Furche- Verlag, Hamburg 39, Postfach 5917) bezogen werden. Bezugspreise für jährlich 4 Hefte: 22,50 DM, Studentenabonne- ment 16«— DM, Einzelheft 6,80 DM, jeweils zuzüglich Porto