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Jespersen Cycle. 1.2 Defining standard negation Addressing apprentice typologists, Whaley (1997 : 226) offers a general prose description of the function of negation as being “to deny the actuality of an event or some portion thereof”. We might also employ logical expression to describe the function of negation. Propositional logic treats negation as a reversal of the truth value of a proposition p to give ~p (not p), where ~p is true if and only if p is not true (see, e.g., Horn 1989 : xiii). Such a definition establishes a very simple and symmetrical

DOI 10.1515/jall-2013-0008   JALL 2013; 34(2): 205 – 274 Maud Devos and Johan van der Auwera Jespersen cycles in Bantu: double and triple negation Abstract: This paper gives an overview of post-verbal negative marking in Bantu languages. It shows that, although Bantu studies tend to concentrate on negation marked on the verb itself, post-verbal negative markers are well represented within the Bantu domain and high concentrations can be found in zones B, C, H and L. It is argued that locative pronouns, possessive pronouns and negative (answer) particles

Is there a Jespersen cycle? Pierre Larrivée 1. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to present a reconceptualisation of the central grammatical change that is the Jespersen cycle. The evolution of the gram- mar of negation is proposed to be best understood as pathways of changes for (families of ) items rather than as a syntactically-driven process. The paper does three things. It first introduces the research project from which emanate the contributions to this volume that are subsequently presented. It shows how pathways of change account for the

, North, and Northwest Sahel included). We argue that these vocalic verb stem alternations (NEG3), and in particular the morphophonemic mechanisms behind them, are to be regarded as a source for the creation of new negators, which will be discussed in detail in Section 4 of the study. Moreover, we will attempt to single out the main processes that have led to the current stages of standard negation in Berber – i. e., the negation of a main clause declarative verbal predicate – while taking into account the role of the so-called Jespersen Cycle ( 1917 : 4), which in

Beyond the Jespersen Cycle

of the original negation marker from a postverbal to a preverbal position. We discuss two possible scenarios for the change: one involving language contact and the other one related to a diachronic process known as a ‘Jerspersen Cycle’ – although in Awa Pit the Jespersen Cycle ran in the reverse direction. Second, in one variety of Awa Pit spoken in Colombia, the emergence of a new negation marker can be observed. Although we support Curnow (1997) in his hypothesis on the possible origin of the new negation marker (namely, the lexical verb ki ‘do, happen’), we

Pierre Larrivée 12 Negation and polarity Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the behaviour of negation in Romance. The adopted perspective is that variation between languages is explained by diachronic tendencies. The principle diachronic motif in the evolution of clausal negation marking is the Jespersen Cycle. This evolution cycle goes from clausal negation being initially marked by an item in preverbal position, that is doubled by a post-verbal item, which with the loss of its preverbal counterpart remains the sole exponent of

Além da negação pré-verbal não sei o brasileiro (BR) conhece ainda a negação dupla não sei não e a negação pós-verbal sei não, dispondo assim na sincronia atual de nada menos do que três graus do processo cíclico no âmbito da negação conhecido por Jespersen's cycle:

NEG 1: NEG-V não tenho

NEG 2: NEG-V-NEG não tenho não

NEG 3: V-NEG tenho não

No contexto das línguas românicas, além do brasileiro, também alguns dialetos setentrionais do italiano, como, por exemplo, os dialetos lígures de Val Bormida, o palenquero (uma língua crioula de base espanhola) e, como língua não-românica, também o africânder possuem na sincronia atual uma gama de estruturas de negação igualmente extensa (vejam-se Schwegler 1988, 28 e 45; Parry 1997, 244). Também o francês moderno conhece essas três estruturas de negação, mas a estrutura NEG 1 (NE–V) só sobreviveu em alguns contextos muito especiais (veja-se Muller 1991). Segundo Schwegler o fenômeno das negações dupla e pós-verbal, ou seja, o ciclo da negação, também é freqüente fora da Romania em outras línguas indo-européias (vejam-se Schwegler 1983, 301–318; Schwegler 1988, 22). Schwegler (1988, 38) chama a atenção para o fato de que, ao contrário da grande maioria das outras línguas românicas, o negador pós-verbal do BR não deriva de um emphasizer nominal, como, por exemplo, o francês pas (< le pas < lat. passum), mas é uma repetição do negador pré-verbal, ou seja, a transposição do negador absoluto para a posição final dentro do corpus principal da frase (veja-se Schwegler 1988, 21s.).

The Evolution of Negation Trends in Linguistics Studies and Monographs 235 Editor Volker Gast Founding Editor Werner Winter Editorial Board Walter Bisang Hans Henrich Hock Heiko Narrog Matthias Schlesewsky Niina Ning Zhang Editor responsible for this volume Volker Gast De Gruyter Mouton The Evolution of Negation Beyond the Jespersen Cycle edited by Pierre Larrivée Richard P. Ingham De Gruyter Mouton ISBN 978-3-11-023860-0 e-ISBN 978-3-11-023861-7 ISSN 1861-4302 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The evolution of negation : beyond the Jespersen

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Lojenga Maarten Mous Thilo C. Schadeberg Saskia van Putten Harry Stroomer editoriAl boArd Th. Bearth, Zurich H. B. C. Capo, Garome L. Hellan, Trondheim L. M. Hyman, Berkeley L. Marten, London J. T. Mathangwane, Gaborone A. Motingea Mangulu, Kinshasa G. Philippson, Paris/Lyon M. Reh, Hamburg Eno-Abasi Urua, Uyo B. Yimam, Addis Ababa JALL   2013 | Volume 34 | Number 2 Contents Maud Devos and Johan van der Auwera Jespersen cycles in Bantu: double and triple negation   205 Kofi Yakpo Wayward daughter: Language contact in the emergence of Pichi (Equatorial Guinea)   275