Only about a quarter of child abuse reports are ultimately substantiated, which has caused some concern among policymakers and the general public. But previous literature suggests that unsubstantiated and substantiated reports may not be much different from each other in terms of child outcomes. We present a Bayesian theoretical analysis of the data-generating process underlying maltreatment substantiation, and then take a new empirical approach by examining the statistical time-series relationship between substantiated and unsubstantiated reports. We show that the two series are cointegrated. This suggests that unsubstantiated reports are not mostly malicious or unfounded, but that they emanate from the same signals as verifiable, substantiated abuse.
This study empirically examines the impact of warrantless arrest laws (designed to deter domestic violence) on multiple youth outcomes. Utilizing variation in the timing of implementation of the laws across states, and employing a difference in differences framework, we examine both the direct and indirect impacts on youth in the United States. There appears to be no significant direct link between warrantless arrest laws and domestic violence-related homicides. However, on the indirect front, we do find strong evidence that implementation of the arrest laws results in a drop in the probability of youth experiencing suicidal ideation. This analysis also accounts for important heterogeneities in laws across states, and our findings are robust to multiple sensitivity checks, aimed at addressing key threats to identification.
In this paper, we first investigate the Hyers–Ulam stability of the generalized Cauchy–Jensen functional equation of p-variable
in an intuitionistic fuzzy Banach space. Then, we conclude the results for Cauchy–Jensen functional equation of p-variable
. Next, we discuss the intuitionistic fuzzy continuity of Cauchy–Jensen mappings.
At the end of the 1960s, the US divorce law underwent major changes and the divorce rate almost doubled in all of the states. This paper shows that changes in property division, alimony transfers, and child custody assignments account for a substantial share of the increase in the divorce rate, especially for young, college educated couples with children. I solve and calibrate a model where agents make decisions on their marital status, savings, and labor supply. Under the new financial settlements, divorced men gain from a higher share of property, while women gain from an increase in alimony and child support transfers. The introduction of the unilateral decision to divorce has limited effects.
In the present paper the so-called (VilBs; α; γ)-diaphony as a quantitative measure for the distribution of sequences and nets is considered. A class of two-dimensional nets of type of Zaremba-Halton constructed in a generalized B2-adic system or Cantor system is introduced and the (VilB2; α; γ)-diaphony of these nets is studied. The influence of the vector α = (α1, α2) of exponential parameters to the exact order of the (VilB2; α; γ)-diaphony of the nets is shown. If α1 = α2, then the following holds: if 1 < α2 < 2 the exact order is 𝒪 () for some ε > 0, if α2 = 2 the exact order is 𝒪 () and if α2 > 2 the exact order is 𝒪 () for some ε > 0. If α1 > α2, then the following holds: if 1 < α2 < 2 the exact order is 𝒪 () for some ε > 0, if α2 = 2 the exact order is 𝒪 () and if α2 > 2 the exact order is 𝒪 () for some ε > 0. Here N = Bν, where Bν denotes the number of the points of the nets .