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Linguistic Studies of Kashmiri OMKAR N. KOUL 1. Introduction Linguistic studies of Kashmiri, comprising of grammars, grammatical studies, lexicography, phonology etc., began in the middle of the 19th cen- tury. The grammatical literature includes a variety of materials written in the form of brief notes, articles, monographs, dissertations, and indepen- dent grammatical sketches and grammars. The lexicographical works in- clude di¤erent types of vocabularies, glossaries and dictionaries. The linguistic studies available can be classified in the areas of

in 2006

neighborhood. What was unu- sual was that it was perfectly positioned to monitor their activities. Moreover, what bothered Fai was that the car was parked illegally in the no-parking zone next to the stop sign. Fai resolved not to worry about it and to merely acknowledge that someone might be watching. The night before Fai’s arrest, he was out with friends having dinner when one of his family members called the police to report the car. The next morning Fai was arrested.1 14 Policing Kashmiri Brooklyn junaid rana Policing Kashmiri Brooklyn | 257 The FBI searched Fai Peter Edwin Hook, Omkar N. Koul Impersonal expressions in Hindi-Urdu and phantom valents in Kashmiri Abstract: The word acephaly denotes the absence of a head [‘headlessness’]. We* use it here in our discussion of two sets of idiomatic construction in Hindi-Urdu in which an expected syntactic agent is absent. We compare this ‘headless’ con- struction to a Kashmiri counterpart in which the missing ‘head’ is indicated by a non-referential ergative pronominal suffix affixed to the finite verb and conclude that

KASHMIRI AND OTHER DARDIC LANGUAGES BRAJ B. KACHRU 1. INTRODUCTION The last two decades, especially after 1955, have been of substantial linguistic ac- tivity on the Indian sub-continent. A large number of Indie languages have been analyzed for the first time, and new analyses of many languages have been worked out following contemporary linguistic models. By and large, this linguistic interest has left Kashmiri1 and other Dardic languages untouched. There are two main reasons for this neglect of the Dardic languages. First, politically, the task is

5 Western Indo-Aryan: Kashmiri Kashmiri and the Northwestern IA languages in general have long been con- sidered to belong to a language family other than IA, namely the Dardic family. The Dardic family was supposed to include Kashmiri and many less frequently spoken languages such as Shina, Pashai, Dameli and Kohistani among others (for an overview, see Bashir 2003), all of which are spoken in the mountainous region on the borders of the Indo-Aryan language area, close to Iranian languages. Since Morgenstierne (1961), however, “Dardic” has been reduced to

Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Kashmiri Kashi Wali — Ο. N. Koul — P. E. Hook — A. K. Koul Kashmiri, natively known as kzashur, is spoken by nearly 4 million speakers in the Jammu and Kashmir state and other parts of India and by several thousand in Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Pakistan. It is an Indo-Aryan language related to the language of the Vedas in the same way as Hindi/Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, and other modern Indo-Aryan languages are (see Morgenstierne 1961). Like Urdu, Punjabi, and Sindhi it is overlaid with Perso-Arabic lexical

Child Labour in Kashmiri Society: A Socio-human Rights Study

The Constitution of India guarantees fundamental rights and the full freedom to enjoy childhood. In spite of that millions of children are being put to arduous work for short and narrow gains. By 1989, the standards concerning children were brought together in a single legal instrument agreed to by the international community. It unambiguously spelt out the rights to which every child is entitled, regardless of place of birth, descent, sex, religion, or social origin. A number of aspects, such as gender, family background, cultural acceptance, issues of health and recreation, the legal aspect and so on, have been covered. The life worlds of working children, legal protection to children from exploitation and the human rights perspective of child labour is the main focus of this article.

126 Chapter 8 Community Identity of Kashmiri Hindus in the United States Haley Duschinski Kashmir, the rugged and remote region located high in the Himalayan ranges of south Asia, is widely recognized as one of the most dangerous war zones in the contemporary world. Given the exten- sive amount of commentary and analysis that has focused on the confl ict there, it is somewhat surprising that there is virtually no academic literature dealing with Kashmiri immigrant communities in the United States. Since the beginning of the current confl ict in Kashmir in

Language planning and language conflict: the case of Kashmiri RAKESH MOHAN Language is potentially äs great a unifying factor äs a dividing one. It is a symbol of loyalty and animosity, solidarity and conflict, pride and prejudice (Fishman 1972: 4). There were, however, periods in history when language was in no way regarded äs a political or cultural factor (Kohn 1945: 6), and it was assumed that any struggle against its abuse was to be construed äs an instance of sentimental archaism (Orwell 1963: 325). This concept has now been replaced by a new one which

Kashmiri, a majority-minority language: an exploratory essay Makhan L. Tickoo The task My subject is my mother tongue. Much like the Swiss, we Kashmiris are known to suffer from an excessive degree of sentimental attachment to both our land and our language. A belief in their exceptional beauty, rich- ness and charm may at times make it difficult to take a totally objective view of what has been happening to both. A lot has been happening. A word first about my principal qualification and main motivation for attempting this essay. I am a teacher of E