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455 SHAARAIM – THE GATEWAY TO THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH NADAV NA'AMAN DEPARTMENT OF JEWISH HISTORY, TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY 1. DOES SHAARAIM MEAN “TWO GATES”? The city of Shaaraim is mentioned twice in the Bible: first, after Socoh and Azekah and before Adithaim and Gederah in the list of Judahite Shephelah cities (Josh 15:35–36); second, “the Shaaraim road” is mentioned in connection with the Philistines’ flight after their defeat in the battle of the Valley of Elah (1 Sam 17:51–52). In a recently published article, Garfinkel and Ganor (2008) suggested

96 CHAPTER VI. THE KINGDOMS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL. Jeroboam establishes nn idolatrous worship at Bethel and Dan—Invasion of Judea by Shisliak, k ing of Egypt—Death of Kehoboam—Abijali his s o n ; defeats Jeroboam—Tlie doom of Jeroboam's house—Nadab—Baasha—Asa, k ing of J u d a h , concludes u t reaty wi th Benhadad, k ing of Damascus— Elah son of Baasha dethroned by Zimri—Omri—Ahab; marr ies J e z e b e l - Int roduct ion of the worship of Baal—Slaughter of the prophets—Appear- ance of Elijah—Famine in Israel—Defeat of the priests of P.aal—Elijah on Mount

61 9 THE END OF THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH According to the book of Kings, the kings of Judah were to blame for the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile of the people from their land to Babylon. The kings did not heed the advice of the prophets. They did not maintain the social orders and the fulfillment of the commandments. The Covenant between the people and their God was violated. For all these God punished the people with exile and destruction. Yet the Lord warned Israel and Judah by every prophet and every seer, saying, Turn from your evil ways and

566 PERSPECTIVES ON HEBREW SCRIPTURES edition of 4QRP for DJD, a fitting continuation of the work represented here. 1 M. Segal, “Biblical Exegesis in 4Q158: Techniches and Genre,” Textus 19 (1998), 45–62 (56). John J. Ahn, EXILE AS FORCED MIGRATIONS: A SOCIOLOGICAL, LITERARY, AND THEOLOGICAL APPROACH ON THE DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT OF THE SOUTHERN KINGDOM OF JUDAH (BZAW, 417; Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 2011). Pp. xviii + 306. Hardback. €89.95. $135.00. ISBN 978-3-11-924095-5. Reviewed by Bob Becking Department of Religios Studies and

Redaktionsgeschichtliche Studien zu 2 Chr 10-36

The Babylonian Conquest of Judah 597 The Babylonian Conquest of Judah: Some Additional Remarks to a Scientific Consensus By Joel Weinberg (P.O.B. 4130, Jerusalem 91041 – Israel) In modern biblical studies consensus is a rare phenomenon and therefore, whenever it occurs, especially with regard to an event as sig- nificant in ancient Jewish history as the conquest of Judah by the Baby- lonians, the liquidation of the kingdom of Judah and deportation of its population, the devastation of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Yahwe-temple, it deserves special

the pre-monarchical period had faded when the biblical works were put in writing. Biblical literature, including the historiography, the proph- ecy and the psalms, was written at a relatively late date, no earlier than the late 8th century, and it reflects the reality of the monarchical period, when the district of Benjamin was an integral part of the kingdom of Judah. No wonder that most of the biblical references to ›Joseph/House of Joseph‹ indicate the severance, rather than brotherhood, between Benjamin and its two northern ›brothers‹, Ephraim and Manasseh

A Sociological, Literary, and Theological Approach on the Displacement and Resettlement of the Southern Kingdom of Judah

ix figures 1a. Coin of John Hyrcanus with the inscription: “Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews” / 24 1b. Coin of the Great Revolt with the inscription: “Shekel Yisrael” / 24 1c. Coin of Bar Kokhba with the inscription: “Shimon Nesi (Patriarch of) Yisrael” / 24 2. Reconstruction of the Madaba Map. Akademisches Kunstmuseum—Antikensammlung der Universität Bonn / 83 3. Replica of the Rehov inscription, located in Kibbutz Ein HaNetziv near Beit Shean / 99 maps 1. The Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel / 20 2. The expansion of the