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The Case of Albanian

Punya Sloka Ray LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION INTRODUCTION We ordinarily speak of standardization in relation to tools. We expect of a standardized tool that it will be cheaper to acquire and maintain, that individual specimens will be very much alike and of relatively uniform dependability. When a tool is rarely used or used by only a few people, standardization is relatively unimportant. But if it comes to be used frequently and by a large number of people, standardization is often an advantage. When we apply the concept of standardization to languages, we

phonetic, lexical, or even in syntax. A classic example is Singapore, where government leaders have clearly supported an “inclination toward Putonghua”, further echoed by distinguished local linguists ( Chew 2011 : 91, 101). As for Malaysia, initial efforts were rather uniform in working towards conforming to Putonghua standards. This heightened to a peak with the official formation of the Chinese Language Standardization Council of Malaysia in 2004, its initial members mainly coming from the Ministry of Education and Chinese newspaper editorial boards. The

JOAN RUBIN 12 Language Standardization in Indonesia INTRODUCTION One of the questions which has interested Indonesian language scholars is the extent to which there is agreement on what constitutes standard Indonesian. My Indonesian colleague, Harimurti Kridalaksana, and I set out in 1970 to answer this question. In the course of doing so, we found we raised more questions than we answered. Starting with a local problem, we found an enormous set of theoretical and practical problems which needed to be clarified before beginning our study. The initial

III. Societal aspects of language contact384 Thornberry, Patrick 1991 International law and the rights of minorities. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. Tully, James 1995 Strange multiplicity: Constitutionalism in an age of diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vertovec, Steven 2007 Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies 30(6). 1024−1054. Xanthaki, Alexandra 2007 Indigenous rights and United Nations standards. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stephen May, Auckland (New Zealand) 32. Language standardization 1. Introduction

Spiros A. Moschonas 2. Prescriptive acts: A performative theory of language standardization Abstract: This chapter proposes a performative theory of language standardization. Language standards are described as metalinguistic speech acts that have a meta- language-to-language “direction of fit”, i.e. their perlocutionary effect – if any – is ultimately locutionary. Under particular “felicity conditions” (in particular sociolin- guistic settings), such metalinguistic acts may raise language awareness within a community and manage to effect or inhibit language

Wánɡ Tiěkūn (王铁琨), Lǐ Yànhuá (李艳华), Chén Mǐn (陈敏), Wánɡ Cuìyè (王翠叶) & Zhōu Qìnɡshēnɡ (周庆生) 4 Language standardization in China In 1998 the State Language Commission (SLC) was officially merged with the Ministry of Education (MOE) as a result of institutional reform by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The MOE is part of the State Council and is in charge of education and language issues. It is responsible for “drawing up guidelines and policies for national languages, both spoken and written; making medium and long-term plans for language Andrew Linn, Guro Refsum Sanden and Rebecca Piekkari Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table Abstract: This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study of language standardization in the wider

Liao Meizhen (廖美珍) 9 Language standardization in criminal courts Judicial language is an important part of legal language, while language used in criminal courts is of utmost importance in judicial language. Language in criminal courts refers to the speech of all participants in the criminal trial including the bill of indictment, statement of defense, statement of verdict, and the interactive discourse at courtroom trials. The first three forms are written language applied by public prosecutors, defenders (advocates) and judges. The last form refers to the

GILBERT ANSRE LANGUAGE STANDARDISATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEFINITION The term language standardisation is here used to mean the process by which a specific variety of a language emerges as the preferred variety of a speech community, this to be distinguished from the phenomenon of the language of a speech community being replaced by a distinctly different language. Strictly speaking, language standardisation is an intralanguage phenomenon while language change is one of interlanguage. Discussions on standard language are usually confined to languages