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Is there a European language history? KLAUS J. MATTHEIER Abstract The thoughts on a language history within a European context sketched out here represent an attempt to extend the concepts of regional and par- ticularly national language history by adding a third dimension: transna- tional language history in Europe. After a few general thoughts on the extended area of research, in which so-called external language history is linked to historical pragmatics and particularly to historical sociolinguistics, four research paradigms are out- lined: the comparative

in historical timeframes. Koineization here is understood in the same sense in which Kerswill (2013 : 519) describes it to mean “a contact-induced process that leads to quite rapid, and occasionally dramatic, change. Through koineization, new varieties of a language are brought about as a result of contact between speakers of mutually intelligible varieties of that language”. I argue that previous approaches to the history of Italian have ignored the relationship between the standard and the koine, and that it is only by looking at language history through a

and usage in language history. A Sociolinguistic and comparative perspective, 103–128. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. Nevalainen Terttu. 2014 Norms and usage in seventeenth-century English Rutten Gijsbert Vosters Rik Vandenbussche Wim Norms and usage in language history. A Sociolinguistic and comparative perspective 103 128 Amsterdam & Philadelphia Benjamins Noordegraaf, Jan. 2004. A matter of time: Dutch philosophy of language in the eighteenth century. In Thomas F. Shannon & Johan P. Snapper (eds.), Janus at the millennium: Perspectives on time in the

Linguacentrism and language history Nancy C. Dorian In his determination to shake the speakers of various Indo-European languages from the complacency and smug self-assurance engendered by their political, eco- nomic, and social dominance, Benjamin Lee Whorf chose a method of presenta- tion which emphasized to the greatest possible degree the differences in linguistic structure between Hopi, his chief non-Indo-European exemplar, and English (or the Standard Average European [SAE] which included English). The section headings in his paper on "The relation of

2 LANGUAGE HISTORY 1. Diachronic Variation §39. Medieval manuscripts that transmit classical Latin works invariably contain corruptions that reflect their scribes’ limited command of a dead language. The scribe, whose native language was a European vernacular, can be expected to have experienced difficulties with rare words or unfamiliar constructions. The gap in knowledge of classical Latin between the author of the work and the scribe who transmitted its earliest extant witness is likely to be considerable. It is therefore entirely reasonable for modern

FIFTH P ART GERMANIC LANGUAGE HISTORY NOTE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNSTRESSED E N G L I S H E INTO /* Unstressed vowels are reduced in different ways in different languages. In languages where the main syllable of the word is strongly stressed, unstressed vowels are relaxed to a mixed "neutral" vowel and may finally be dropped altogether. That is the case of Germanic languages or of North Irish, for instance. But in languages where the individuality of all vowels is retained and "neutral" vowels do not occur, the reduction does not take the form of a

English and Beyond
A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday

The language history of Tibetan Philip Denwood The history of the Tibetan language in all its variant forms is important not only in its own right but also in wider comparative and historical studies. In particular the earliest reconstructible stage of Tibetan, however arrived at, has and will continue to loom large in the comparative and historical study of the Tibeto-Burman and Sino-Tibetan languages, both because of its rather large quantity of linguistic material and because of its alleged antiq- uity, generally reckoned to be surpassed within these groups