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The treatment of chromium tanned sheepskins with poly(hydroxyl urethane) and dispersion of chemically synthesized nanosilver showed the best resistance to fungi and bacterial exposure tests. These collagen-based materials containing different amounts of nanosilver were investigated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The influence of sheepskins treated with silver nanoparticles on the wound healing process was assessed and the nanoparticles concentration seems to have a positive effect up to 370 ppm and does not influence the inflammatory process above this concentration.

APPENDIX Relative Pay in Swedish and West German Industry, 1960—1977 Table i. Women's hourly earnings as a percentage of men's by industry: Sweden, manual workers only, 1960-1977 Industry Manufacturing Food Beverages Textiles Garments Leather processing Shoes Wood products Paper, pulp, and allied products Printing Chemicals and plastics Rubber Iron and steel Engineering Shipbuilding Automobiles Mining Construction 1960 69-3 76.4 80.1 81.3 75-7 74-9 72.4 75-9 7°-3 70.7 71.6 70.3 70-3 7i.9 — 73.8 — ^65 75-5 78.1 894 81.9 79-2 77-7 76.6 81.0 76.6 69.8 74-5 73-4 82

Sharma Sanjay K. John Wiley & Sons 2015 Hardcover, 496 pp. Print ISBN: 978-1-118-72099-8 Dyes are used in large quantities in various industries including textiles, healthcare, paint, printing, leather processing and food processing, etc. to colour their products. Only a small fraction (10–20%) of a dye is actually used in the process and rest of the dye ends up in wastewater generated by dye-using industries. Disposal of dye laden wastewater imparts colour to the receiving water bodies. Colour impedes light penetration, photosynthetic activity, inhibits the

hydrolysates, products of partial hydrolysis of proteins which contain the essential amino acids, trace elements, etc. Out of 1000 kg of raw hide, nearly 850 kg is generated as solid waste in leather processing. Only 150 kg of the raw material is converted into leather. Tanneries generate huge amounts of solid waste such as [2]: fleshing, 50–60; chrome shaving, chrome splits and buffing dust, 35–40; skin trimmings, 5–7; and hair, 2–5 %. Solid wastes in the leather processing constitute: beam house, 80; tanning, 19; finishing, 1 %. Collagen hydrolysates display properties

.94 kg/mm2, and the hardness is decreased from 25.10 kg to 22.40 kg. 98 L K. BELAYA After artificial aging, the strength is slightly reduced but is still greater than the strength of the control samples. The hardness is decreased to 21.90kg. Besides processing with the methylol polyamide glue PFE-2/10, we tested the effect of a 15% solution of poly vinyl alcohol on the leather. Processing with poly vinyl alcohol increases the strength of leather; how- ever, its hardness is increased. Table 3 gives data on the effect of a 15 % solution of poly vinyl alcohol on old

ar dn es s in k g 235 189 305 234 262 227 276 275 180 281 264 254 332 471 298 425 352 381 264 374 452 473 555 388 415 337 267 310 284 Remarks 200 hours of irradiation, i. e. 100 hours on the flesh side and 100 hours on the grain side 50 hours of irradiation on the flesh side and 50 hours on the grain side 10 hours of irradiation 227 Adbesives for the Restoration of Skin-bindings and Parchments TABLE 3: Physico-mechanical properties of old tanned leather processed with polyamides. Name of the process Load in kg Ex- tension in mm At rupture Λ «Ηο ε a ·* «1aυ jg

bleaching agent and elimination of hydrogen peroxide in dairy industry [ 45 ], [ 46 ]. Our all isolates produced this enzyme. Proteases are used in removing hair from hides, leather processing, laundry, detergent production, cheese production, softening meat, improving wool quality [ 47 ]. The species of Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus pumilus , Gracilibacillus dipsosauri , Halomonas eurihalina , Staphylococcus arlettae , Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum , Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus , Salinicoccus roseus and Staphylococcus

). If for medical applications collagen and keratin extracts are obtained from primary sources with very rigorous traceability, for the industrial domain secondary resources can also be accessed. Secondary protein resources generated by the leather processing industry and the agro-food industry are an accessible and low cost but less exploited raw material. In the present research, proteins, collagen and keratin were extracted from the leather processing by-products which were used to obtain biocomposites with properties specific to application in the agricultural

). Thermophysiological comfort properties of the leathers processed with different tanning agents. Journal of Textile and Apparel/Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, 26(4), 436–443. Çolak S. M. 2016 Thermophysiological comfort properties of the leathers processed with different tanning agents Journal of Textile and Apparel/Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon 26 4 436 443 [8] Nelson, E. A., Hillman, A., Thomas, K. (2014). Intermittent pneumatic compression for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5). Art. No.: CD001899. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001899.pub4 . Nelson E. A