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[1] Friedman LS: Controversies in liver biopsy: who, where, when, how and why? Current Gastroenterology Reports 2004;6:30–36 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-004-0023-4 [2] The British Society of Gastroenterology Guidelines on the use of liver biopsy in clinical practice. Gut 1999; 45(Suppl.4): 1–11 [3] Guido M, Rugge M: Liver biopsy sampling in chronic viral hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis Feb 2004; 24(1):89–97 http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-823103 [4] Colloredo G, Guido M, Sonzogni A, Leandro G: Impact of liver biopsy size on histological evaluation of chronic

[1] Friedman LS: Controversies in liver biopsy: who, where, when, how and why? Current Gastroenterology Reports 2004;6:30–36 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-004-0023-4 [2] The British Society of Gastroenterology Guidelines on the use of liver biopsy in clinical practice. Gut 1999; 45(Suppl.4): 1–11 [3] Guido M, Rugge M: Liver biopsy sampling in chronic viral hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis Feb 2004; 24(1):89–97 http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-823103 [4] Colloredo G, Guido M, Sonzogni A, Leandro G: Impact of liver biopsy size on histological evaluation of chronic

1 Introduction Congenital tuberculosis is considered a rare neo- natal infectious disease in developed countries. Only about 300 cases have been reported [15]. Among the high-risk groups, infants of immigrant mothers of southeastern Asia are prone to higher rates of infection [12]. In the past, the diagnosis was usually confirmed only by the autopsy because of the high mortality rate. Here we report a case of congenital tuberculosis in a neonate diagnosed by percutaneous liver biopsy.The infant’s Indonesian mother had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. 2 Case report A

–1419 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(99)70506-8 [14] Al Knawy B., Shiffman M., Percutaneous liver biopsy in clinical practice., Liver Int. 2007, 27(9), 1166–1173 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01592.x [15] Hepburn J.M., Vos J.A., Fillman E.P., Lawitz E.J., The accuracy of the report of hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography in patients infected with hepatitis C in a clinical setting: A retrospective observational study., BMC Gastroenterol., 2005, 5, 14–28 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-5-14 [16] Palmentieri B., de Sio I., La Mura V., Masarone M

MEASUREMENT OF PHOSPHATE-ELIMINATING ENZYME (PEE) ACTIVITY IN LIVER BIOPSIES A. Niederwieser, W. Leimbacher, H.-Ch. Curtius Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pediatrics, University of Zurich, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland Recently, we described the measurement of the phosphate-eliminating enzyme (PEE) activity in liver biopsies from patients with "dihydrobiopterin syn- thetase" (DHBS) deficiency (8, 13). The following is a summary of these data. Presently three metabolic defects are known to cause tetrahydrobio- pterin (BH4) deficiency

Hepatitis B virus HCC Hepatocellular carcinomas HCV Hepatitis C virus HD Hemodialysis HGF Hepatocyte growth factor HSC Hepatic stellate cells IGF1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 ILK Integrin-linked kinase IQR Interquartile range KO Knockout kPa Kilopascal KS King’s score LB Liver biopsy LRAT Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase LSM Liver Stiffness Measurement LXR Liver X receptor MCP-1 Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 MFs Myofibroblasts MRCP Magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticography NAFLD Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NASH Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NGF Nerve growth

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University-Hospital of Padova, and Leonardo Foundation, Abano Terme General Hospital, Padova, Italy Abstract Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In all etiologies of CLDs, staging of liver fibrosis is essential for both prognosis and management. Until a few years ago, liver biopsy was the only tool for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with CLDs. However, liver biopsy is an invasive and costly procedure. More recently, various serum biomarkers and lab- oratory tests have

., Standish, R., Marelli, L., Quaglia, A., Patch, D., Dhillon, A. P., Burroughs, A. K. (2006). A systematic review of the quality of liver biopsy specimens. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol ., 125 , 710–721. Crawford, J. M. (2002). Liver cirrhosis. In: MacSween, R. N. M., Burt, A. D., Portmann, B. C. (eds.). Pathology of the Liver. 4 th ed. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp. 575–619. D’Amico, G., Garcia-Tsao, G., Pagliaro, L. (2006). Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis: A systematic review of 118 studies. J. Hepatol ., 44 , 217–231. De Ritis, F

Introduction In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and concomitant liver disease, secondary to chronic viral hepatitis, the assessment of liver fibrosis is essential when evaluating candidacy for kidney transplantation, as the presence of cirrhosis is usually considered a contraindication. [ 1 ] The liver biopsy specimen represents only 1/50,000 part of the entire liver. The heterogeneity of liver fibrosis in viral infection and the inadequacy of sample size can cause considerable bias in the assessment of hepatic histology.[ 2 , 3 , 4 ] Although widely

remains as a major limitation. Liver biopsy (LB) is currently the imperfect gold standard diagnostic tool for the staging of liver fibrosis [ 3 ]. However, it is interesting that many gastroenterologists shy away from performing LB, citing the high rate of complications, due to well-documented drawbacks, poor acceptance by the patient, high cost, limitations on the reliability of the histological information obtained, difficulties in performing repeated assessments and very occasionally, death [ 4 ], [ 5 ]. Due to the perceived risk, discomfort and patient reluctance to