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The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy Advances Volume 13, Issue 2 2012 Article 1 THE ECONOMICS OF LONG TERM CARE Long Term Care, Altruism and Socialization Gregory Ponthiere∗ ∗Paris School of Economics - Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris), gregory.ponthiere@ens.fr Recommended Citation Gregory Ponthiere (2012) “Long Term Care, Altruism and Socialization,” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy: Vol. 13: Iss. 2 (Advances), Article 1. DOI: 10.1515/1935-1682.3358 Copyright c©2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved. Long Term Care, Altruism and

1 Introduction Our societies face, at present, a serious problem with long-term care (LTC). Defined as a mix of medical and support services for those with disabilities and chronic-care needs, LTC can be delivered at home, in an adult day care center, or through another type of community program, in an assisted living facility, or in a nursing home. 1 The source of this problem is twofold, demographic, and societal. On the one hand, populations are aging, and the number of people aged 80+ is rising. Their relative importance in the European Union will go from 4

1 Introduction The provision of long-term care (LTC) constitutes a major challenge for advanced economies. As a consequence of the ageing process, an increasingly large number of persons reports having some type of functional limitation (e.g. sensory, physical or mental limitations), which prevent them from being autonomous. The European Union (2009) forecasts that the number of elderly dependents in the EU-27 will grow from about 21 million people in 2007 to more than 44 million people in 2060. Such a substantial rise in the number of elderly dependents will

1 Introduction With life expectancy increasing in most countries, more and more people live longer and enter a lifespan where dependency is no longer an infrequent occurrence. The 80-plus population, people most at risk of suffering severe dependency and requiring long-term care (LTC), is increasing faster than any other age group. The provision of LTC thus represents a major challenge for most societies today and for decades to come. In these societies, most of the older people in need of LTC services continue to rely on informal home care or services provided

Volume 7, Issue 1 2013 Article 4 Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance Projecting the Cost of Long-Term Care Insurance in Korea Hyuk-Sung Kwon, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Soongsil University Chang-Soo Lee, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Soongsil University Jun-Soo Hur, School of Social Welfare, Soongsil University Recommended Citation: Kwon, Hyuk-Sung; Lee, Chang-Soo; and Hur, Jun-Soo (2013) "Projecting the Cost of Long- Term Care Insurance in Korea," Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance: Vol. 7: Iss. 1, Article 4

Means-Tested Long-Term Care and Family Transfers Helmuth Cremer Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse 1 Capitole Pierre Pestieau CREPP, University of Liege, CORE, University of Louvain and Toulouse School of Economics Abstract. One of the pervasive problems with means-tested public long-term care programs is their inability to prevent individuals who could afford private long-term ser- vices from taking advantage of public care. They often manage to elude the means-test net through ‘strategic impoverishment’. We show in a simple model how this

that provides the majority of care hours to the elderly and disabled. This group includes certified and licensed nursing assistants, home health care workers and personal care aides or assistants. At the same time, the population in most developed economies is aging substantially and demand for long-term care is increasing. As a result, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projected in 2010 that the two fastest-growing occupations (based upon demand for services) in the United States through 2020 would be personal care aide and home health aide, with growth rates of

1 Introduction Americans are ill-prepared for the financial implications of aging, especially with respect to future long-term care needs. A typical couple age 65 can expect to incur health care costs of $260,000 in present-value terms over their remaining lifetimes, including the cost of long-term care and Medicare, Medigap, and retiree health insurance premiums ( Webb and Zhivan 2010 ). This same couple faces a 5% chance that it will spend more than $570,000. Few individuals are in a position to mitigate those risks through savings alone. The median net worth

Are Personal Budgets a Financially Sound Reform Option for the German Long-Term Care Insurance? By Melanie Arntz, Mannheim, and Stephan L. Thomsen, Magdeburg* JEL I38, I12, C93 Long-term care, long-term care insurance, consumer-directed home care, spending. Received: 30.10.2009 Revision received: 14.04.2010 Accepted: 03.05.2010 Summary In a long-run social experiment, personal budgets have been tested as an alternative home care program of the German long-term care insurance (LTCI). By granting the monetary value of in- kind services in cash, personal budgets are

References ANTTONEN, A. & SIPILA, J. (1996). European social care services: Is it possible to identify models? Journal of European Social Policy. 9(2), pp. 87–100. DOI:10.1177/095892879600600201. ANTTONEN, A. & KARSIO, O. (2016). Eldercare Service Redesingn in Finland: De-institutionalization of Long-Term care. Journal of Social Service Research. 42(2), pp. 151–166. DOI:10.1080/01488376.2015.1129017 BARR, N. (2010). Long-term care: A suitable case for social insurance. Social Policy and Administration. 44 (4), pp. 359–374. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467