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Siderophores Produced by Magnaporthe grisea in the Presence and Absence of Iron Luis Anteloa, Carolin Hofa, Kai Welzela,c, Katrin Eisfelda, Olov Sternerb, and Heidrun Ankea,* a Institut für Biotechnologie und Wirkstoff-Forschung e.V. (IBWF), Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. Fax: +49-631-31672-15. E-mail: anke@ibwf.de b Division of Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Lund, P.O. Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden c Present address: Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Knollstr. 50, D-67061 Ludwigshafen, Germany * Author for correspondence and

(1999); received May 5/May 19, 1999 Magnaporthe grisea, Pyricularia oryzae, Appressorium Formation, Antifungal Compounds, Alternative Oxidase, Respiratory Inhibitors Appressorium formation in germinating conidia of Magnaporthe grisea was induced on a hydrophilic (noninductive) surface by antifungal compounds. Respiratory inhibitors or un­ coupling agents such as strobilurins, antimycin A, myxothiazol, rotenone, pterulone A, and oligomycin A were particularly effective whereas sodium cyanide had no effect. Cyclosporin A was effective only at high concentrations

Introduction Rice blast disease, caused by infection of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr, is one of the most harmful diseases for rice [1]. Several salicylaldehyde derivatives, such as pyriculol ( 2 ) [2], pyriculariol ( 3 ) [3], pyriculone ( 4 ) [4], and pyricuol ( 5 ) [5], have been isolated from the fungus as suspicious compounds responsible for the disease; they induce dark necrotic spot, when being applied to wounded rice leaves. In addition, o -formyl- m -hydroxycinnamic acid ( 6 ), probably further oxidized compound derived from 4

Mainz, Germany d Institute of Biotechnology and Drug Research, Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. E-mail: anke@rhrk.uni-kl.de * Author for correspondence and reprint requests Z. Naturforsch. 64 c, 521 – 525 (2009); received May 19, 2009 In our ongoing screening culture fl uid extracts of Gloeoporus (Caloporus) dichrous strain 83065 inhibited the germination of Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium graminearum spores. While isolating the active metabolites two new caloporosides, caloporoside G and calopo- roside H, in addition to the known

Abstract

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is a group of enzymes metabolizing endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. Using differential display RT-PCR and cDNA library screening, a full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase cDNA (ALDH7B7) was isolated from rice leaves infected by incompatible race of blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 509 amino acid residues and shares 74∼81% identity with those of ALDH7Bs from other plants. ALDH7B7 expression was induced by blast fungus infection, ultraviolet, mechanical wound in rice leaves and was not detected in untreated rice organs. This gene has also been found to be inducible after exogenous phytohormones application, such as salicylic acid, methyl ester of jasmonic acid and abscisic acid. The function of ALDH7B7 in the interaction process between blast fungus and rice is discussed.

REFERENCES Avila-Adame C. & Köller W. (2002): Disruption of the alternative oxidase gene in Magnaporthe grisea and its impact on host infection. Molecular plant-microbe interactions , 15(5): 493-500. Avila-Adame C. & Köller W. (2003): Characterization of spontaneous mutants of Magnaporthe grisea expressing stable resistance to the Qo-inhibiting fungicide azoxystrobin. Current genetics , 42(6): 332-338. Brent K.J. & Hollomon D.J. (2007a): Fungicide resistance: the assessment of risk . FRAC Monograph No. 2. Brussels, Belgium: Fungicide Resistance Action

but pathogenicity reduced mutants are tagged to 30 –50% Two independent mutants within the same gene Gibberella fujikuroi 1064 2 nd Search for gibberellin Tudzynski and Tudzynski, 1998 biosynthesis genes Magnaporthe grisea 5538 27 18 (cosegragation of pheno- Two independent mutants Sweigard et al., 1998b type with selection marker) within the same gene M. grisea app. 400 5 5 (cosegragation of pheno- REMI was done to tag patho- Shi and Leung, 1995 type with selection marker) genicity related genes M. grisea 1150 5 all 5 phenotypes are REMI was done to tag Balhadère

REFERENCES Ahmad, J.S. & Baker, R. (1987). Rhizosphere competence of Trichoderma harzianum . Phytopathol. , 77(2): 182-189. Anwar, A., Bhat, G.N. & Singhara, G.S. (2002). Effect of seed treatment through bioagents and blitox on incidence of leaf blast disease ( Magnaporthe grisea ) and seedling growth of rice under temperate conditions. New Agriculturist , 13:45-47. Arora, D.K., Rai, B., K. G. Mukerji, K.G. (1991). Handbook of applied mycology. Vol. 1: Soil and Plants. CRC Press . Asaduzzaman, M., Alam, M.J. & Islam, M.M. (2010). Effect of Trichoderma

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Hiromasa Kiyota 5-(2,2-Dimethyl-4H-1,3-benzodioxin)methanol: the synthetic precursor to o-formyl-m-hydroxycinnamic acid, the most oxidized salicylaldehyde-type phytotoxin isolated from rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea 185

against sudden changes in osmotic pressure. Introduction Melanines are a group of polymeric pigments pro- duced by many animals, plants and microorganisms (Thathachari and Blois 1969). Many terrestrial fungi are known to produce melanin. For example, the hy- phae of some soil fungi (Ellis and Griffiths 1974), sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. (Chet et al 1967), chlamydospores of Tliielaviopsis basicola (Berk et Br.) Ferraris (Wheeler and Stipanovic 1979) and appres- soria of Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr (Chumley and Valent 1990) contain melanin pigments. However