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1 Introduction 1.1 The languages of Malekula In this study, an account of negation is presented in a sub-set of the languages of Malekula Island in the nation of Vanuatu. Data for 16 languages are referred to, including six detailed case studies. The island of Malekula and its numerous small off-shore islands belong to the province of Malampa (Malekula-Ambrym-Paama). The 2009 census records 36,727 people as residing in Malampa Province, with 27,825 being residents of Malekula and its small islands ( Vanuatu National Statistics Office 2009 : 13). This population

58. Α. Β. DEACON MALEKULA* KINSHIP ORGANIZATION IN THE SOUTH-WEST All the villages of a single clan are further united in the possession of a distinctive gong-beat (nambwir in Seniang, nambog in Mewun), which strangely enough is the only name which the clan possesses. Thus, should one ask: "What is the characteristic gong-beat of Vananggalat?" a certain rhythm is given. Should one ask for the characteristic gong-beat of Mbwiltenemal the same rhythm is given, the reason being that both these villages belong to the one 'parent' village Tanari (Wilemp

Maps xxiii Map 1. Malekula Island in Vanuatu xxiv Maps Map 2. Location of Malekula languages that have been the subject of recent linguistic study. Moribund languages in parentheses. Maps xxv Map 3. Location of Neverver speakers in North-Central Malekula. Non-dominant languages in parentheses. Map 4. Hand-drawn map of the Netmatlab River Valley. Prepared by Song-Be Peni- yas, with Limap village elders, for the

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/Munich/Boston TYPESETTING Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd., Pondicherry, India PRINTING AZ Franz X. Stückle Druck und Verlag e.K., Ettenheim Printed in Germany Contents Articles Enrique L. Palancar and Timothy Feist Agreeing with subjects in number: The rare split of Amuzgo verbal inflection 337 Martine Bruil When evidentials are not evidentials: The case of the Ecuadorian Siona reportative 385 Julie Barbour Jespersen Cycles on Malekula 425 Book Review Jeffrey Heath Thomas S. Stroik and Michael T. Putnam, The structural design of language. Denis Bouchard, The nature and origin of

Chapter 1 Introduction Neverver, the language of the Mindu and Sakhan people, is spoken on Malekula Island in Vanuatu by some 560 people. The speech community is located pri- marily in the villages of Lingarakh and Limap on the eastern side of north- central Malekula. Neverver survives in a context of extraordinary linguistic diversity, being surrounded by indigenous Malekula languages as well as the introduced languages English, Bislama, and to a lesser extent French. Prior to the current study, this Southern Oceanic language (Lynch, Ross and Crowley 2002

through kind permission of the Royal Anthropologi­ cal Institute of Great Britain, from A. B. Deacon, "Geometrical Drawings from Malekula and Other Islands of the New Hebrides," in the Institute's Journal, LXIV (1934), I2gff. For the paper by Rudolf Bernoulli 1. Ancient Chinese diagram of cosmic interrelations 322 From the encyclopedia Tu Tsei. 2. The three worlds containing the Sephiroth, or ten cosmic forces 327 From Knorr von Rosenroth's Kabbala denudata (Sulzbach and Frankfurt a. M., 1677). 3. Engraving from the Tabula smaragdina (emerald medallion) of

. Argumentiert Forster zunächst noch ganz im Sinne der Klimatheorie Buffons, die er mit einer an Winckelmann orien- tierten ästhetisch-normativen Perspektive verbindet, so läßt sich bereits in seiner Beschreibung der schwarzen Portugiesen Sao Tiagos eine den zeitgenössischen wissenschaftlichen Kontext explizit einbeziehende, reflektiertere und distanziertere Haltung gegenüber diesem vorherrschenden Erklärungsmodell menschlicher Va- rietäten erkennen. Entscheidender Wendepunkt aber ist die Begegnung mit den fremdartigen Bewohnern Malekulas: Vor der Landung auf Malekula war

Appendix I A. Bernard Deacon’s Nesan Data (1926–1927) 1. Orthographic notes A. Bernard Deacon, a British anthropology student, spent around 14 months on the island of Malekula and its neighbours in 1926 and early 1927. Deacon’s field notes contain a list of the orthographic conventions that he used to record language data while travelling around Malekula. The list is by no means com- prehensive; however, it does allow the linguist to decode many lexical items, and to hypothesize the probable phonetic values of many sounds that Deacon transcribed

Lenakel 1900 Tanna Whitesands 1969 Erromanga Sie 1852 Efate South Efate 1864 Efate Nakanamanga 1873 Efate Namakura 1882 Epi Baki 1883 Epi Lewo 1897 Epi Bieria 1897 Malekula Rerep 1892 Malekula Uripiv 1893 Malekula Aulua 1894 Malekula Maskelynes 1904 Malekula Southwest Bay 1905 Malekula Labo 1905 Malekula Malfaxal 1918 Malekula Axamb 1932 Paama Paama 1870 Ambrym Lonwolwol 1886 Ambrym Dakaka 1893 Santo Tangoa 1890 Santo Malo 1892 Santo Nokuku 1901 Santo Sakao 1905 Santo Tolomako 1905 Of all these languages, only two were used as mission languages