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U N I V E R S I T Y O F P E N N S Y L V A N I A B I C E N T E N N I A L C O N F E R E N C E Medieval Medicine By HENRY E. SIGERIST, M.D., D.LITT.* WE CAN approach the medical history of a period from dif- ferent points of view, from that of practical achievements or from that of ideas. Medicine is a craft and a science. As a craft it is frequently transmitted by word of mouth and practical instruction, from father to son and from master to pupil. As a science medicine is one aspect of the general culture of a period. It reflects man's attitude toward

651 Historiography of Medieval Medicine music, archaeology, law and science. For information about particular medievalists, historians or otherwise, see Répertoire international des medievalists (Turnhout: Brepols, 1995).This work provides the names, addresses, and fields of specialization for 16,000 medievalists worldwide. Andrew Holt Historiography of Medieval Medicine A. General Definition There are many fundamental, practical and theoretical differences between what is laterally understood by the term ‘medicine’ and how it was defined in the Middle Ages. The

THEORY AND PRACTICE IN MEDIEVAL MEDICINE by John M. Riddle If evidence were totally lacking, we might reasonably assume that medical practice, like language and customs, continued substantially unaltered from the late Roman period. Most historians of medicine, to the contrary, postulate a clear break between late Roman and early medieval medical practice.1 The early medieval period is called the "Dark Ages" of medicine by Charles Sin- ger;2 other scholars bemoan "stagnant conventionalism"3 and an era "restricted to literary pursuits in the shadow of the

in 1974

Edited by Barbara Zipser 9Vivian Nutton Vivian Nutton Simon of Genoa and Medieval Medicine The history of medieval medicine has long been tied up with the discovery and editing of texts. As with medieval history in general, scholars like De Renzi and Daremberg in the mid nineteenth century found it necessary to delve into archives and manuscript collections to supplement what was meagrely available in the form of printed books. The creation of a documentary basis for medicine was one of the central tasks of these pioneers, and was further established from

Freya Harrison and Erin Connelly Could Medieval Medicine Help the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance? Abstract: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, combined with a severely stalled discovery pipeline for new antibiotics being developed, has the potential to undo the advances in infection control achieved in the last century. One way around this impasse might be to re-explore the medicinal practices of the medieval world. Why? This is because although the medieval world was ignorant of so much of modern theory, it seems that centuries of practice

10 Gender, Old Age, and the Infertile Body in Medieval Medicine Catherine Rider Abstract Medieval medical texts regularly discussed a range of reproductive disor- ders in men and women. As part of this discussion, they often noted that men and women were infertile in extreme youth and old age. Although medieval medical views of infertility have received scholarly attention, these references to age and infertility have not been analysed. This chapter traces these references in a range of twelfth- to f ifteenth-century Latin medical works. It argues that

3 Blood, Milk, and Breastbleeding The Humoral Economy of Women’s Bodies in Medieval Medicine Montserrat Cabré and Fernando Salmón*1 Abstract In humoral physiology the pregnant body was considered capable of transforming menstrual blood into nourishment for the foetus. After childbirth, blood became breast milk. However, this harmonic continuum was threatened when the maternal body was unable to transform blood into milk: in the Hippocratic aphorism 5.40, when blood cannot be trans- formed in the breasts of women, it indicates madness. We analyse medieval

Recovering Women in Late Medieval Health

organise the knowledge presented. Keywords: transmission of knowledge; text and image; medieval medicine; Hans von Gersdorff; Hieronymus Brunschwig Der Straßburger Wundarzt Hans von Gersdorff richtet sich zu Beginn seines ‚Feldbuchs der Wundarznei‘ im Jahr 1517 mit einer ersten Vorrede an den Leser: Meister Hans von Gerßdorff, genant Schylhans, burger vnd wund artzet zu Straßburg, allen denen so diß buch mit danck leßen, entbeüt er sein willigen dienst vnd alles guts.2 Er stellt sich vor, huldigt den Leser standesgemäß und informiert ihn über seine Absichten.3