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[ 49 ] cH a Pter t Wo Menachem Begin’s Reality in His memoir, President Carter recalled watching an interview when Menachem Begin was running for prime minister, in which the candidate stated “that the entire West Bank had been ‘liberated’ during the Six Day War, and that a Jewish majority and an Arab minority would be established there.” At the time Carter exclaimed, “I could not believe what I was hearing.”1 But Begin’s views were not at all surprising to anyone paying attention to his long career in politics. Begin was a leader of the revisionist

1977 mit Menachem Begin erstmals ein Vertreter des nationalkonservativen Likud das Amt des israelischen Premiers übernahm. Vgl. Avi Shilon, Menachem Begin. A Life, New Haven 2012. Die Begin-Regierung schloss zwar 1979 Frieden mit Ägypten, sorgte zugleich aber mit einer Reihe politischer und militärischer Schritte für internationale Kritik, etwa der forcierten Siedlungspolitik in den besetzten palästinensischen Gebieten oder der Libanon-Invasion 1982. Weitere kontroverse Aktionen waren die Zerstörung des irakischen Atomreaktors Osirak durch Israels Luftwaffe im

[ vii ] illUstr ations 1.1. Leader of the PLO Yasser Arafat, 1982. 25 1.2. “Jimmy Carter with Yitzhak Rabin, Prime Minister of Israel,” March 7, 1977. 38 2.1. “Prime Minister Menachem Begin Is Welcomed by Children of Elon Moreh,” February 27, 1981. 65 3.1. “Prime Minister Menachem Begin Gives Tourist Guidance to President Sadat, Beer Sheva,” May 27, 1979. 106 4.1. “Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin at the Camp David Accords Signing Ceremony,” September 17, 1978. 123 4.2. Camp David Treacherous Accords, 1979. 152 5.1. “President Ronald

A Political History from Camp David to Oslo
From the Origins to the Present Day

MENACHEM BEGIN This page intentionally left blank MENACHEM BEGIN A Life A V I S H I L O N Translated from the Hebrew by Danielle Zilberberg & Yoram Sharett N E W H A V E N & L O N D O N Published with assistance from the foundation established in memory of Amasa Stone Mather of the Class of 1907, Yale College. Originally published in Hebrew as Begin, 1913– 1992 by Am Oved Publishers Ltd 2007. Copyright © by Avi Shilon and Am Oved Publishers Ltd 2007. En glish translation copyright © 2012 by Avi Shilon and Am Oved Publishers Ltd. Published by arrangement

521 ARCHIVES Menachem Begin Heritage Center Archives (Jerusalem) Central Zionist Archives (Jerusalem) Haganah Archives (Tel Aviv) Institute of Contemporary Jewry Israel Tele vi sion Archives Israel State Archives Jabotinsky Institute Archives (Tel Aviv) Protocols of the Knesset (Knesset Minutes) Yad Vashem Archives (Jerusalem) Yad Tabenkin Archives INTERVIEWS The interviews from the Menachem Begin Heritage Center were conducted by Iris Barletski; the interviews from the Israel State Archives were conducted by Nana Sagi. Shraga Alis, Menachem Begin Heritage


[ v ] con ten ts List of Illustrations · vii Preface: The Road from Gush Etzion · ix Introduction 1 cHaPter 1 Jimmy Carter’s Vision 17 cHaPter 2 Menachem Begin’s Reality 49 cHaPter 3 Egypt’s Sacrificial Lamb 80 cHaPter 4 Camp David and the Triumph of Palestinian Autonomy 117 cHaPter 5 Neoconservatives Rising: Reagan and the Middle East 162 cHaPter 6 The Limits of Lebanon 194 cHaPter 7 Alternatives to the PLO? 238 cHaPter 8 A Stillborn Peace 267 conclUsion The Consequences of State Prevention 288 Acknowledgments · 309 A Note on Sources · 315 Abbreviations

[ 321 ] a bbrev i ations CCOH Columbia Center for Oral History Archives CREST Central Intelligence Agency Records Search Tool DDRS Declassified Documents Reference System FRUS Foreign Relations of the United States HIA Hoover Institution Archives IPS Institute for Palestine Studies ISA Israel State Archives JCL Jimmy Carter Library KCD Kahan Commission Documents LOC Library of Congress MBC Menachem Begin Heritage Center MERIP Middle East Research and Information Project NARA National Archives and Records Administration NSA National Security Affairs