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between them and shifts in microbial population in soil. Soil samples are obtained with a shovel or a soil auger. Sampling strategy requires taking into consideration the objective of the study, a level of precision of the data needed and sampling requirements (sampling sites, numbers and types of samples, size of sample units, etc.). Methods of soil sampling can be random, transect, two-stage or systematic grid [ 5 , 7 , 8 ]. The traditional methods of microbiological analysis of soil samples include cultural assays utilizing dilution and plating methodology

. DOI: 10.1155/2013/760298. 4. Bintis, T., 2018: Lactic acid bacteria: their application in foods. J. Bacteriol. Mycol. Open Access , 6, 2, 89—97. DOI: 10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00182. 5. Cabanová, L., Kubicová, Z., Filipová, M., Škuntová, O., Mojžišová, A., Čuvalová, Z., 2018: Results of monitoring for detection of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry samples taken from Slovak retail. In Proceedings of lectures and posters Hygiena Alimentorum XXXIX, The High Tatras, Slovakia, 65—68. 6. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological

Introduction Despite the extensive use of antibiotics and vaccination programs, infectious diseases, particularly bacterial infections, remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the great challenges of microbiology for the coming years remains the development of new antimicrobial agents. Indeed, because of the massive and often untimely use of antibiotics, pathogenic bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms against most classes of antibiotics currently available. This trend has been particularly dramatic over the past 20 years. The

Introduction Clinical microbiology laboratories incorporate a wide range of methods and technologies into a single discipline. These range from traditional methods such as the Gram stain, which originated over 130 years ago, to novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing. Many of these processes are not only labor intensive but also technically challenging and require interpretation of complex test results by the microbiologist. Traditional methods such as culture are complicated by the need to distinguish normal bacterial flora from pathogens, many of