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Chapter 1 Monolingual Norms and Multilingual Realities In our days of frequent border crossings, and of multilingual multi- cultural foreign language classrooms, it is appropriate to rethink the monolingual native speaker norms as the target of foreign language education. As we revisit the marked and unmarked forms of language usership, I propose that we make the intercultural speaker the unmarked form, the infinite of language use, and the monolingual monocultural speaker a slowly disappearing species or a nationalistic myth. (Kramsch, 1998: 30) We reach here

20 Translanguaging and Ideology: Moving Away from a Monolingual Norm Carla Jonsson Introduction Translanguaging offers a lens through which to analyze multilingual speech and writing. The concept translanguaging shifts the focus of the analy- sis from languages in contact to the speakers who are communicating, and from a view of languages as bound entities to a more fluid view of ‘lan- guages’, acknowledging the linguistic repertoires of multilinguals. The trans- languaging lens thus changes the perspective from a monolingually oriented approach to one in

Perspectives from Multilingualism and Globalization

interaction. Videotaped lessons were analyzed by means of conversa- tion analysis focusing on the interaction between the teacher and the bilin- gual pupils as well as on language-related sequences. The results show that the bilingual pupils cannot be regarded as victims of a language policy gov- erned from above, but that they actively contribute to the construction and maintenance of a monolingual norm in the classroom. When using Finnish, they at the same time point at the ‘‘other-languageness’’ of the code- switched words. Monolingualism as a norm means a limitation

developmental path of the acquisition level of theta per language? Can distinct stages be identified and, if so, are they similar in the two languages, and what is their age-length? (vi) Does the richer and more complex vocabulary of the two languages and the language-specific phonotactics make acquisition of theta easier or harder in terms of age of acquisition, compared to monolingual norms in the respective languages? (vii) Is theta performance better at the same word position all along? (viii) What are the child’s substitutions of theta and do they change

-informed monolingual norm ( Ortega 2014 ; Canagarajah 2014 ), ingrained pedagogic and learning-theoretical traditions ( Meier 2014a ; García and Flores 2014 ), as well as economic/political motivations ( Norton 2014 ; Leung 2014 ), including the general acceptance of language hierarchies. Table 4: Monolingual myths. Themes and sub-themes No of chapters Monolingual myths The monolingual norm 7 Pedagogic traditions 7 Misunderstandings about multilingualism 6 Economic, political beliefs (e. g. English is enough) 5 Learning theory 3 There is the argument that pedagogic traditions and

had considerable time to be socialized into dominant language ideologies, we may witness processes by which ideologies are formed. 2.4 The monolingual norm Flores and Lewis (this issue) raise one more critique of the sociolinguistic literature on super-diversity that bears consideration for our analyses. They note that this literature continues to reify normative assumptions about language. Specifically, it tends to start from an idealized monolingual norm and an outsider’s perspective, rather than from the perspectives and lived experiences of participants within

Abstract

This paper examines peak alignment in Veneto-Spanish bilinguals in the small community of Chipilo, Mexico. We have two goals: First, to provide a description of the peak alignment patterns present in bilingual Chipilo Spanish. As Chipilo Spanish is in contact with a northern Italian variety (Veneto), we hypothesize that changes in peak alignment from monolingual norms, specifically regarding early peak alignment, may be due to transfer from Veneto. Second, we seek to compare the present data, based on controlled speech, to the results of a previous study on semi-spontaneous speech in Chipilo Spanish, contributing to the literature that compares methodologies in intonation research. Our results show that bilinguals demonstrate early peaks in controlled speech, although to a lesser extent than in semi-spontaneous speech. We attribute this to contact with Veneto and a strong sense of ethnolinguistic identity that leads speakers to maintain features of a Chipileño variety of Spanish.

Opportunities and Challenges
Perspectives of Change in Psycholinguistics