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Leishmaniasis is a disease with a worldwide distribution affecting both humans and animals. There is a need to identify and develop new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This study showed that crude ethanolic extracts of the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis have a powerful effect against L. infantum, the prevalent species of the genus Leishmania in the Mediterranean basin. L. infantum demonstrated decreased vitality with increasing concentration of the algal extracts. At a concentration of 40 μg/mL, the extracts achieved 100% mortality of the parasite and the LD50 value was 25 μg/mL for promastigotes and 9 μg/mL for amastigotes. Algal extracts caused morphological alterations and apoptosis in Leishmania cells. The potential cytotoxic action of crude extracts was investigated by a MTT viability assay on DH82 and Vero cell lines but there was no cytotoxic effect. The potential of red alga A. taxiformis metabolites as anti-leishmanial agents merits further pharmacological investigation.


An increasing interest in determination of various macro- and microelements in medicinal plants has been observed. The majority of studies are carried out using one mineralization method without any optimization. The present study demonstrates that changes in mineralization parameters can significantly affect the recovery of the elements determined. In the study, the dried plant material was mineralized in 12 ways and iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn) levels were determined. The samples were mineralized in the dry or open microwave mode as well as 10 closed microwave modes. The influence of acid amounts, irradiation power and time, addition of hydrogen peroxide and perfluoric acid was examined. All parameters were shown to be critical — good efficiency was observed with larger amounts of acid. The determined content varied significantly in the same sample and were in the ranges (ug g−1): 46–136 (Fe), 1.4–11.8 (Cu), 4.0–11.3 (Ni), 15.4–53.8 (Zn) and 9.5–67.6 (Mn). Increased irradiation resulted in the loss of copper and zinc and better recovery of nickel. The results demonstrate that such determinations should include the mineralization optimization step.

of depression. Figure 2 Different mechanisms by which plants show their antidepressant effect. In sum, a wide variety of plants and phytochemical agents possessing antidepressant activity are studied in preclinical pattern. The mechanistic analysis of plants, the main aim of this paper, is key to find their situation in today’s evidence-based medicine, although further preclinical and clinical trials evaluating their safety, bioefficacy, and bioavailability are suggested to prove the valuable role of natural drugs in the management of depressive disorders

composition, (iii) an evaluation of the influence of chitosan as well as an auxiliary substance such as polysorbate 80 (serving as an emulsifying agent) in the hydrogels on the release of both main active components (SEO, TB) was also studied. 2 Experimental 2.1 Chemicals SEO ( Salviae aetheroleum , S. officinalis L.) (SEO), serving as a natural drug, was obtained from Calendula (Nová Ľubovňa, Slovak Republic). Caffeine ( Coffeinum , SL1) (CAF) – 1,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7 H -purine-2,6-dione – serving as a permeation enhancer, was obtained from Sanitas (Prague


Probiotics are a group of microorganisms able to have a positive influence on a host organism when applied in adequate amounts. They are grouped either as: bacteria (mainly Lactobacillus spp and Bifidobacterium) or fungi (Saccharomyces boulardii). Recent studies have revealed many opportunities for their use in several fields of medicine, such as in: reducing the level of cholesterol in the body, cancer therapy, human immune system regulation, skin regeneration, pancreas necrosis, cirrhosis of liver treatment, regulation of post- antibiotic bowel function, constipation and digestive disorders in infants. Probiotics efficacy has also been demonstrated in oral cavity malfunctions. With the use of modern scientific methods, probiotics have the potential to become an important part of the daily diet and a natural drug supplementation in severe diseases.


several issues as collection, cultivation, production, conservation, protection, standardization and sustainability. This are just some of the reasons while discussion and experience exchange are needed. The scientists have met at the International Scientific Conference on the Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice Plants. This relay started in 2007 at the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. The 2nd International Scientific Conference was held in 2011 at the same place in Nitra together with the 16th workshop of the Sections of Natural Drugs of the Slovak

Workshop of the Section of Natural Drugs of the Slovak Pharmaceutical Society © Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae 10 EFFECT OF SEED MATERIAL PREPARATION ON PLANT DENSITY AND FRIUT YIELD OF SILYBUM MARIANUM (L.) GAERTN. Andrzejewska J. 1, Ignaczak S.1, Frias dos Santos P. M.2, Martinelli T.3 1University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Agrotechnology, Poland 2Instituto Superior Politécnico de Coimbra, Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal 3Council for Agricultural Research

-and, indeed, the move to divide chemistry into inorganic and organic sections-undoubtedly came from medicine and the use of natural drugs in its practice, and was partly scientific and partly commercial in character. Already in the eighteenth century what we may describe as scientific medicine was under way and drugs, such as extracts of Digitalis and Cinchona were being used rationally; again in connection with medical work, the animal product cholesterol was isolated and described by Poulletier in 1780. First the pharmacists and then the chemists, actuated by

drugs used in Pakistan. In: Capasso F, Mascolo N, editors. Natural drugs and the digestive tract. Rome: EMSI, 1992:117–121. Gilani AH Constipation and its treatment with natural drugs used in Pakistan Capasso F Mascolo N Natural drugs and the digestive tract Rome EMSI 1992 117 121 4. Pirotta M. Irritable bowel syndrome—The role of complementary medicines in treatment. Aust Fam Physician. 2009;38:966–968. 20369148 Pirotta M Irritable bowel syndrome—The role of complementary medicines in treatment Aust Fam Physician 2009 38 966 968 5. Rodriguez-Cabezas ME, Galvez J

International Symposium on Natural Drugs Proceedings, Naples, 2003, 199–200. [5] Karpova, V.I., Kintya, P.K. and Chirva, V.Y. Structure of saponin A from Naumburgia thyrsiflora. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 11 (1975) 364–366. [6] Kintya, P.K., Karpova, V.I. and Chirva, V.Y. Saponin from Naumburgia thyrsiflora. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 11 (1985) 520–521. [7] Yasukawa, K., Taira, T. and Takido, M. Flavonol gycosides from Lysimachia thyrsiflora. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 25 (1997) 73–74. http