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New insights into the AKD sizing mechanism Kyle J. Bottorff and Mark J. Sullivan, Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, Delaware, USA Keywords: Alkylketene dimers, AKD, Reaction mechanisms, Solid State "C NMR, Sizing, P-Keto acid, P-Keto calcium salt, P-Keto ester, AKD oligomers. SUMMARY: Paper samples sized with 13C labeled alkylketene dimer (AKD) dispersions were characterized by solid state carbon NMR resulting in direct evidence supporting the forma- tion of AKD-cellulose P-keto esters on AKD sized paper. A series of AKD reaction products that may