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abroad and (b) it didn’t have a literature worth reading. When I develop the literary point, I say something like this: 20 Paralanguage 163 THE GIFT OF THE GAB164 What a bad time to be saying such a thing! We don’t have many facts to go on, but one thing we do know is that in November 1582 a young man from Stratford- upon- Avon got married. The belief is that he then travelled to London for a career as a poet, actor, and playwright. And, if the latest research is to be believed, he spent one night with Gwyneth Paltrow, and as a result wrote Romeo and Juliet

Paralanguage: Evidence from Germanic IRMENGARD RAUCH The audible and the visible Although paralanguage enjoys broad acceptance and application as a semiotic concept, it has been ill-de®ned as a linguistic phenomenon; its relevance and boundaries in rigorous linguistic method remain question- able. Trager's admonition to linguists in his seminal `Paralanguage: A ®rst approximation' that (1958: 1) `communication is more than language' and that in using language we are ultimately dealing with and dependent on what he terms the `_ voice set _ the physiological and

13 Accompanying Sound: Paralanguage Not all of the sound of a chunk of speech is visible in the spelling or writing of words or sentences. The invisible sound parts of written words, that is, those not reflected in writing segments, e.g., alphabets, hence called segmental systems, belong to suprasegmental systems, e.g., stress and pitch, or to paralanguage (cf. "[L] in Paralanguage," chapter 6 above). Delineating Paralanguage If language is the many children of several disciplines (cf. "The Lan- guage Inlay," Chapter 3 above), then paralanguage is also; but par

Paralanguage, Communication, and Cognition RICHARD M. HARRIS and DAVID RUBINSTEIN According to a well-known axiom of modern linguistics, speech is the primary "embodiment" of language, and writing is a secondary medium derived from it. By this deliberate reversal of the valued priorities of the traditional grammarians, structural linguists of the twentieth century sought to put linguistic "reality" in its proper perspective.1 The "classical" fallacy" (Lyons 1968: 9), in a tradition that goes back to the ancient Greeks, had been to ascribe an absolute

Language, Motion in Paralanguage, and Body the Structure of Conversation STARKEY D. DUNCAN, JR. This paper reports findings from a program of research on the structure of face-to-face interaction (Goifman 1963) in dyadic converstaions. The research was designed to discover and document some of the building blocks or components of conversations, and the rules or relationships specifying how these components are properly combined. In a sense, the goal has been a "grammar" of conversations. In searching for interaction structure, our research strategy may

Language, Paralanguage, and Body Motion in the Structure of Conversations STARKEY D. DUNCAN, JR. This paper reports findings from a program of research on the structure of face-to-face interaction (Goffman 1963) in dyadic conversations. The research was designed to discover and document some of the building blocks or components of conversations, and the rules or relationships specifying how these components are properly combined. In a sense, the goal has been a "grammar" of conversations. In searching for interaction structure, our research strategy may

The communicative status of human audible movements: Before and beyond paralanguage FERNANDO POYATOS To Mary Ritchie Key The sign-emitting activities and nonactivities of the human body In the course of an investigation of paralanguage (Poyatos 1988) as one of the cosystems of the basic triple structure language-paralanguage-kine- sics — a topic that has constituted the basis of most of my previous studies of communication (Poyatos 1983) — I have once more pondered the fundamental yet neglected fact that paralinguistic utterances can be, and often are, activities

Abstract

Conversational recommender systems have been shown capable of allowing users to navigate even complex and unknown application domains effectively. However, optimizing preference elicitation remains a largely unsolved problem. In this paper we introduce SPEECHREC, a speech-enabled, knowledge-based recommender system, that engages the user in a natural-language dialog, identifying not only purely factual constraints from the users’ input, but also integrating nuanced lexical qualifiers and paralinguistic information into the recommendation strategy. In order to assess the viability of this concept, we present the results of an empirical study where we compare SPEECHREC to a traditional knowledge-based recommender system and show how incorporating more granular user preferences in the recommendation strategy can increase recommendation quality, while reducing median session length by 46 %.

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-2420. CAREY John. 1980. “Paralanguage in Computer-mediated Communication.” In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics , Stroudsburg PA. CASSEL Justine, STONE Mathew, DOUVILLE Brett, PREVOST Scott, ACHORN Brett, STEEDMAN Mark. 1994. “Modeling the Interaction Between Speech and Gesture.” In: Proceedings of Cognitive Science Society Annual Meeting 1994 , George Institute of Technology. CHEN Aoju. 2005. Universal and Language-specific Perception of Paralinguistic Intonational Meaning . PhD Thesis, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen

under oath further obscure and misrepresent the original story through the process of decontextualization. Likewise, the use of a mono-dimensional transcript with the absence of non-verbal linguistic information ( Ekman and Friesen 1969 ) such as kinesics (gestures), paralanguage (emphasis, intonation, volume, pauses), and proxemics (distance between speaker and hearer). In reading from a transcript, it is possible to misrepresent the actual meaning of the original oral story in very significant ways. Finally, one cannot ignore the fact that lawyers influence