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clinical implications. Personal Disord. 2015;6(2):182-98. 5. Giovannoni G, O’Sullivan JD, Turner K, Manson AJ, Lees AJ. Hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease on dopamine replacement therapies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68(4):423-8. 6. Evans AH, Katzenschlager R, Paviour D, O’Sullivan JD, Appel S, Lawrence AD, et al. Punding in Parkinson’s disease: its relation to the dopamine dysregulation syndrome. Mov Disord. 2004;19(4):397-405. 7. Weintraub D, David AS, Evans AH, Grant JE, Stacy M. Clinical spectrum of impulse control

sleep, In: Kryger M.H., Roth T., Dement W.C. (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine, WB Saunders, London, UK, 1994, 163-176 [54] Kinjo N., Atsuta Y., Webber M., Kyle R., Skinner R.D., Garcia-Rill E., Medioventral medulla-induced locomotion, Brain Res. Bull., 1990, 24, 509-516 [55] Jankovic J., Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2008, 79, 368-376 [56] Teo C., Rasco A.l., Al-Mefty K., Skinner R.D., Garcia-Rill E., Decreased habituation of midlatency auditory evoked responses in Parkinson’s disease, Mov

[1] Lang A.E., Lozano A.M., Medical progress: Parkinson’s disease. Part 1., N. Engl. J. Med., 1998, 339, 1044–1053 [2] Nakashima K., Maeda M., Tabata M., Achachi Y., Kusumi M., Ohshiro H., Prognosis of Parkinson’s disease in Japan., Versicherungsmedizin., 1997, 49(4), 126–131 [3] Werner M., Fornadi F., Effect of early diagnosis and therapy on prognosis of Parkinson syndrome., Versicherungsmedizin., 1997, 49(4), 126–131 [4] Ben-Sholomo Y., Descriptive epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease through proxy measures., Can

Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an incurable, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The disease pathology tends to initiate unilaterally, resulting in unilateral motor symptoms, which can define a PD diagnosis. Although PD is diagnosed clinically, SPECT DaT scans are often used to validate a PD diagnosis. These scans are SPECT scans using the DaT radionuclide that binds to the pre-synaptic striatal dopamine reuptake transporter; in a patient with PD, the scan will typically

[1] Lang AE, Lozano AM. Medical progress: Parkinson’s disease. Part 1. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 1044–53 [2] Nakashima K, Maeda M, Tabata M, Achachi Y, Kusumi M, Ohshiro H. Prognosis of Parkinson’s disease in Japan. Versicherungsmedizin. 1997; 49(4): 126–31 [3] Werner M, Fornadi F. Effect of early diagnosis and therapy on prognosis of Parkinson syndrome. Versicherungsmedizin. 1997; 49(4): 126–31 [4] Gibb WRG, Less AJ. A comparison of clinical and pathological features of young and old-onset Parkinson’s disease

1 Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease following Alzheimer’s disease, has created a great impact on the elderly, the family and society. The average age of onset is about 60 years old, and the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in older people over 65 increases with age[ 1 ]. It is estimated that approximately 10 million individuals worldwide suffer from this disease, though many cases may go undiagnosed. With the growth of aging populations, the number will double over the next 25 years, which causes enormous

[1] Bak T.H., The neuroscience of action semantics in neurodegenerative brain diseases, Curr. Opin. Neurol., 2013, 26, 671–677 [2] Dubois B., Pillon B., Cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease, J. Neurol., 1997, 244, 2–8 [3] Green J., McDonald W.M., Vitek J.L., Evatt M., Freeman A., Haber M., et al., Cognitive impairments in advanced PD without dementia, Neurology, 2002, 59, 1320–1324 [4] Hochstadt J., Nakano H., Lieberman P

Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting up to 10 million people worldwide according to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. The diagnosis of PD is based on the presence of clinical symptoms that have been refined over centuries and characterized across various cultures. At present, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society clinical diagnostic criteria focus on motor abnormalities that include bradykinesia (slowness or poverty of movement) plus resting tremor or muscular rigidity [ 1 ]. In this article

Introduction The interaction between gait and cognition has assumed an increased scientific awareness over recent years, with an exponential increase in publications and specialist meetings on this topic. The basis for this interaction lies in central gait control mechanisms that normally regulate gait, in a constantly changing environment. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), this interaction with the environment is exaggerated, due to malfunction of the basal ganglia, resulting in cognitive processes playing a much larger role in gait regulation than normal. This

Introduction: postural instability Postural instability (PI) is one of the common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PI also leads to falls in many PD patients and, often, injuries ( Koller et al., 1989 ). In this short review, our aim is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on PI in PD, including the clinical features, the neural and cognitive substrates, and the effects of dopaminergic medications and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Clinical features PI is one of the most debilitating motor symptoms of PD. It usually develops at Hoehn and Yahr