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imperative changes in this era. The issues associated with operation and planning are more challenging. For efficient and reliable operation of smart transmission systems, it is necessary to have monitoring, analysis, and control of the power grid at different levels. Transmission utilities are commissioning Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) based Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) for better grid monitoring and control. Therefore, synchrophasor communication has emerged as an important element in the current power system operation. In literature, different smart grid

Abstract

Nowadays, phasor measurement units have many applications in the power network. Fault location using the network’s impedance matrix and phasor measurement units (PMU) is a subject that has been recently brought to the location light. In this research, we review the effect of the increased number of PMUs on the precision of the fault location. The method presented in this study uses the impedance transferring between these units and the fault location based on the fault distance. In the suggested method, the uncertainty on the network’s parameters has been considered and using the least-squares of faults, we can obtain the most optimal response. The advantage of this method is that it is not affected by the fault type and resistance of the short connection. In the end, the suggested method is implemented on the 14 bus distribution network and its performance has been evaluated.

1 Introduction In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event [ 1 – 5 ]. In the late 1980s, the development of PMU originated in Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). Two academicians of relay protection field in the National Academy of Engineering, Arun G. Phadke and James S. Throp, took the lead to bring forward synchronous phasor measurement arithmetic and developed the early PMU equipment [ 6 – 9 ]. The spread of wide area measurement system (WAMS) and

systems. These remote bus voltage angle signals are acquired through Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). A time domain simulation study on a 39-bus New England multi-machine system is utilized to show that an SVC auxiliary damping control, based on the derivative of these remote bus voltage angles, is superior to the conventionally employed local signals in damping inter-area oscillations. The effect of transmission delay in the acquisition of remote signals is also presented and a simple mechanism to compensate this delay is proposed and validated. The robustness of the

Abstract

The paper presents a Synchrophasor Assisted Hybrid State Estimator that utilizes the conventional SCADA measurements and the synchrophasors obtained from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). To take advantage of the high sampling frequency of the multiple sets of synchrophasors they are preprocessed in a recursive algorithm that provides the state estimate for the power system part observable by PMUs. The results are forwarded to an iterative procedure in which they are combined with SCADA measurements. The given solution was applied on the IEEE test systems with 14, 30 and 57 buses and its performance was compared with other state estimators. The filtering of measurement errors and convergence, while providing improved accuracy of the final state estimates of the developed methodology can be compared with other hybrid state estimators.

Abstract

Cascaded outages often result in power system islanding followed by a blackout and therefore considered as a severe disturbance. Maintaining the observability of each island may help in taking proper control actions to preserve the stability of individual islands thus, averting system collapse. With this intent, a strategy for placement of synchronized measurements, which can be obtained from phasor measurement units (PMU), has been proposed in this paper to keep the system observable during cascaded outages also. Since, all the cascaded failures may not lead to islanding situations, therefore, failures leading to islanding as well as non-islanding situations have been considered. A topology based algorithm has been developed to identify the islanding/non-islanding condition created by a particular cascaded event. Additional contingencies such as single line loss and single PMU failure have also been considered after the occurrence of cascaded events. The proposed method is further extended to incorporate the measurement redundancy, which is desirable for a reliable state estimation. The proposed scheme is tested on IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and a practical Indian 246-bus networks. The numerical results ensure the observability of the power system under system intact as well as during cascaded islanding and non-islanding disturbances.

installed in the north-west part of Texas because of abundant wind resource there. This separation between resources and load centers create some unique challenges in how to best integrate renewable resources to meet increasing demand while also effectively ensuring the reliability of the ERCOT grid. Since synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) were first introduced in early the 1980s, they have been recognized as the new tools to modernize power system monitoring and control. Especially in recent years, PMUs are becoming popular in power systems due to their

N. Mekki, F. Derbel, L. Krichen and F. Strakosch Power System State Estimation Using PMU Technology Abstract: This paper focuses mainly on a recent method aiming to provide an optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for power system state estimation purposes. The proposed technique is generally based on synchrophasor technology which helps accurately and reliably in estimating the current status of the electrical network. In fact, establishing full system observability must consider the lack of the appropriate informations in all network nodes

rights reserved. Calculation of Power System Dynamic Frequency during Simulation Phase Ghadir Radman Dr. and Mehriar Aghazadeh Tabrizi Abstract New monitoring devices such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and Frequency Disturbance Recorders (FDRs) are being added to power systems for real time measurements of system variables including dynamic frequency at different locations (buses). These frequency measurements will be used for real time control of power systems in near future. It is necessary to examine the performance of such control systems through simulation

countries are experimenting with synchrophasors and trying to utilize the data that would assist the system operators in real time as well as post-dispatch. The Power System Corporation has implemented a pilot project wherein nine phasor measurement units (PMUs) have been deployed for acquiring phasor data from widely dispersed locations in Northern India. In the project, time-synchronized data are telemetered at a high speed from PMUs through optical fiber communication and at Phasor data concentrator located at the Northern Region Load Despatch Centre (NRLDC). The