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Dispersing and milling 35 2 Properties of pigments and fillers When dispersing, pigments and fillers, agglomerates are broken down and turned into primary particles. For that to happen, the attractive forces between the par- ticles have to be overcome. Pigment agglomerates are held together by London- van der Waals interactions. Inorganic and organic surface treatments modify the attractive forces so that the assembly of agglomerates is affected by them. The relationship between the Hamaker constant of an organic surface treatment, agglomerate structure and

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Jochen Winkler Dispersing Pigments and Fillers Winkler_Dispersing_GB.indb 1 26.04.2012 12:56:04 Jochen Winkler Dispersing Pigments and Fillers Hanover: Vincentz Network, 2012 European Coatings Tech Files ISBN 978-3-7486-0224-8 © 2012 Vincentz Network GmbH & Co. KG, Hanover Vincentz Network, Plathnerstr. 4c, 30175 Hanover, Germany This work is copyrighted, including the individual contributions and igures. Any usage outside the strict limits of copyright law without the consent of the publisher is prohibited and punishable by law. This especially

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Dioxide © Copyright 2013 by Vincentz Network, Hanover, Germany Jochen Winkler Titanium Dioxide Production, Properties and Effective Usage Winkler_Titanium_engl.indb 3 12.12.12 11:05 Winkler_Titanium_engl.indb 4 12.12.12 11:05 Farbe und Lack Edition Dispersing Pigments and Fillers The dispersion of pigments and fillers is the most important and complex step during paint manufacturing. Wetting, mechanical destruction and stabilization occur simultaneously and each of these steps must be faultless in order to get an optimal dispersion. The book deals with

precipitation of silica, J. Colloid Interface Sci. , 2004, 277, 316. Żurawska J., Krysztafkiewicz A., Jesionowski T. Active silicas obtained in processes of precipitation from solutions of sodium metasilicate and ammonium chloride, J. Chem. Technol. Biot. , 2003, 78, 534. Jesionowski T., Pokora M., Tylus W., Dec A., Krysztafkiewicz A. Effect of N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane surface modification and, C. I. Acid Red 18 dye adsorption on physicochemical properties of silicas precipitated in an emulsion route, used as a pigment and filler in acrylic pants

Appendix 197 Jochen Winkler: Dispersing Pigments and Fillers © Copyright 2012 by Vincentz Network, Hanover, Germany Author Jochen Winkler studied chemistry at the University of Stuttgart, Ger- many. From 1980 until 1984 he worked with the German Paint Research Institute (Forschungsinstitut für Pigmenten und Lacke, FPL) in Stuttgart, where he studied pigment flocculation and did work on the energy balanc- ing of dispersion machinery. He joined Sachtleben Chemie GmbH in Duis- burg, Germany, as member of their technical service laboratory in 1985, but soon moved

of the coating film expressed as a percentage. The PVC is determined by the formulation. It has become accepted that the term “pigment volume” is the sum of pigment and filler volumes. Consequently, a more correct term would be “total PVC” which is then defined as: Total-PVC = P-Volume + F-Volume * 100 [%] P-Volume + F-Volume + B-Volume where: P = Pigment F = Filler B = Binder (solid) The volumes needed to calculate the PVC are obtained from the masses (in g or kg) and the densities of the components. In the case of binders it is the

, Rupprecht H: Adsorption of ionic sur- factants on polar surfaces with a low content of chemically adsorbed alkyl chains, Colloid Polym. Sci. 271 (1993) 307 - 309. [6] Solomon DH, Hawthorne DG: Chemistry of Pigments and Fillers, Wiley, New York (1983). [7] Farrokhpay S, Morris GE, Fornasiero D, Self P: Effects of chemical functional groups on the polymer adsorption behaviour onto titania pigment particles, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 274 (2004) 33 - 40. [8] Farrokhpay S, Morris GE, Fornasiero D, Self P: In - fluence of polymer functional group architecture on titania pigment

-92: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Painted or Coated Specimens Subjected to Corrosive Environments, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000. 20. ASTM D714-87: Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000. 21. ASTM D610-08: Standard Practice for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012. 22. Kalendova A., Veselý D. and Kalenda P. A study of the effects of pigments and fillers on the properties of anti-corrosive paints. Pigment