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watching news from private TV-stations increases the perception of crime. By contrast, the use of online newspapers of high quality has a negative impact on the subjective perception of crime. Thereby the influence of using online-media varies with age: younger users are influenced to a higher degree compared to older users. Keywords: Internet Use, Media, Public Perceptions of Crime, Fear of Crime, Trends 1. Kriminalitätsentwicklung im Hellfeld Kriminalität ist ein Thema von großem Interesse nicht nur für die Bürger sondern auch für die Politik. Der Schutz der

Crime, Uncertainty, and the Transition to Democracy

Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile no. 10. Journal of Communication, 29(3), pp. 177-196. Kolbeins, G.H. (2002) Delinquency and Adolescents’ Viewing of Tlevision Volence. Nordicom Review (Special issue), 23(1-2), pp. 277-290. Lowry, D.T., Nio, T.C.J. & Leitner, D.W. (2003) Setting the Public Fear Agenda: A Longitudinal Analysis of Network TV Crime Reporting, Public Perceptions of Crime and FBI Crime Statistics. Journal of Communication, pp. 61-73. Pingree, S. & Hawkins, R. (1981) U.S. Programs on Australian Television: The Cultivation Effect, Journal of Communication, pp

, Public Perceptions of Crime, and FBI Crime Statistics’, Journal of Communication 53(1): 61-73. McCombs, M.E., & Shaw, D.L. (1972) ‘Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media’, Public Opinion Quarterly 36(2): 176. McManus, J.H. (1994) Market-driven Journalism: Let the Citizen Beware? Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Milner, H. (2002) Civic Literacy: How Informed Citizens Make Democracy Work . Hanover: University Press of New England. Nannestad, P., & Paldam, M. (1994) ‘The VP-Function - A Survey of the Literature on Vote and Popularity Functions After 25

University Press. Hawkins J.D Farrington D.P Catalano R.F 1998 Violence in American Schools. A New Perspective Henneguelle, A., Monnery, B. & Kensey, A. (2016). Better at home than in prison? The effects of electronic monitoring on recidivism in France. Journal of Law and Economics 59, 629–667. Henneguelle A Monnery B Kensey A 2016 Journal of Law and Economics Herzog, S. (2003). Does the ethnicity of offenders in crime scenarios affect public perceptions of crime seriousness? A randomized survey experiment in Israel. Social Forces 82, 757–781. Herzog S 2003 Social

INDEX abc News poll, 9; on public perception of crime, 14 abc/Washington Post poll, 31 Actual Innocence, 98–99, 115 n.17, 123, 132 ‘‘actual prejudice’’ principle, 87 n.83 Adams, Randall Dale, 28, 112 African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights, 184–85 age limits on capital punishment, 36–37, 226 aggravating circumstances, rules governing, 153–56; mandatory death sentences and, 159–61 American Bar Association (aba), 21–22; Death Penalty Postconviction Representa- tion Project, 72 American Civil Liberties Union, 104–5 American Convention on Human Rights, 184

“legitimized” by police activity that promotes the extra scrutiny of African Americans. Kevin Drakulich and Laura Siller examine how race directly and indirectly shapes public perceptions of crime and crimi- nals, with an emphasis on implicit racial bias. In an adaptation from his book Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys, Victor Rios provides insight into the multiple ways that surveillance of and assumptions about the dangerousness of young men of color decrease community security and create social distance between police and Introduction | 3

perception of and reactions to, crime. Research on how victims of crime come to terms with their experience and the influences this has on their cognitive perspective is another area of growth which contradicts the view that legal psychology is purely defense-centred. The pronouncements of victims and the way the media chooses to report crime can have a powerful influence on the legislative climate in which new laws and sentencing procedures are developed. The fluctuating public perception of crime and criminals represent a linked area of great potential interest in

. 1996). Abschließend bleibt die Frage nach den Konsequenzen der vorliegenden Untersuchung für die weitere Forschung zum Entstehungszusammenhang kriminalitätsbezogener Unsi- cherheitsgefühle in Europa aufzugreifen. Der Vergleich zweier ähnlicher, eng verwandter Erklärungsmodelle, deren Geburtsstätte und Resonanzblüte in unterschiedlichen Kultur- kreisen zu verorten ist, lässt tief blicken. Gerber und Kollegen (2010, 152) weisen den Weg: »In some countries, public perceptions of crime may operate against the backdrop of broader anxieties about long-term social change

years, German National Crime Statistics show an overall trend of decreasing offences. Using data from a nationwide survey, this study demonstrates that despite of this trend, the public assumes an increase in crime. Empirical results give some evidence that reports in private TV dealing with crime can produce such a biased public perception of crime. Moreover, those persons who suppose that crime had increased have a higher need for punishment. These results will be discussed in the light of the contemporary national and international development of crime policy