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(1999); received May 5/May 19, 1999 Magnaporthe grisea, Pyricularia oryzae, Appressorium Formation, Antifungal Compounds, Alternative Oxidase, Respiratory Inhibitors Appressorium formation in germinating conidia of Magnaporthe grisea was induced on a hydrophilic (noninductive) surface by antifungal compounds. Respiratory inhibitors or un­ coupling agents such as strobilurins, antimycin A, myxothiazol, rotenone, pterulone A, and oligomycin A were particularly effective whereas sodium cyanide had no effect. Cyclosporin A was effective only at high concentrations

-aryl-1,3-thiazinan-4-one derivatives were syn- thesized and evaluated in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. vasinfectum, Alternaria brassi- cae, Valsa mali, Alternaria alternata, and Pyricularia oryzae. Among all derivatives, especially compound 4j exhibited a potential antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. Key words: 2-(N-Arylsulfonylindol-3-yl)-3-aryl-1,3-thiazinan-4-ones, Antifungal Activity, Phytopathogenic Fungi 78 H. Qu et al. · Antifungal Activities of 2

phytopathogenic fungi by the poisoned food technique (Xu et al., 2007). Seven phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthospo- rium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxyspo- rum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae, were used for the biological assays. Potato dex- trose agar (PDA) medium was prepared in fl asks and sterilized. Compounds 1 – 9 were dissolved in acetone before mixing with PDA, and the fi nal concentration of the test compounds in the me- dium was fi xed at 100

disease of Erysiphe graminis. In vitro, Sclerotinina sclerotiorum and Fu- sarium graminearum were the most sensitive fungi to grifolin, and their mycelial growth inhibition were 86.4 and 80.9% at 304.9 µm, respectively. Spore germination of F. grami- nearum, Gloeosporium fructigenum and Pyricularia oryzae was almost completely inhibited by 38.1 µm grifolin. In vivo, the curative effect of grifolin against E. graminis was 65.5% at 304.9 µm after 8 days. Key words: Grifolin, Albatrellus dispansus, Antifungal Activity, Plant Pathogenic Fungi Introduction Research during

Abstract

Bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from n-hexane extracts of the bark of Cryptomeria japonica resulted in six abietane- and two pimarane-type diterpenoids, including a new compound, 12-methoxy-6α,11-dihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene. The structure of the new substance was established by spectral analyses and comparison with related compounds. The antifungal activities of these diterpenes were evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata, Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The diterpenes showed moderate antifungal activity against the fungi examined.

phylloplane fungi. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 66: 57‒64. S y A. A., N orng K., A lbertini L., P etitiprez M. 1984. Recherches sur la lutte biologique contre Pyricularia oryzae Cav. IV. Influence du pH sur ľaptitude de germes antagonistes à inhiber in vitro la croissance mycélienne du parasite [Research on biological control of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. IV. Effect of pH on the ability of antagonistic microorganisms to inhibit mycelial growth of the parasite in vitro ]. Cryptogamie Mycol. 5: 59‒65 (in French). T ronsmo A., D ennis C. 1978. Effect of temperature on

., 2016. Relationship between mycoparasites lifestyles and biocontrol behaviors against Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(12): 5257 - 5272. Law J.W.F., Ser H.L., Khan T.M., Chuah L.H., Pusparajah P., Chan K.G., Goh B.H., Lee L.H., 2017. The potential of Streptomyces as biocontrol agents against the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae). Frontiers in microbiology, 8:3. Legrand F., Picot A., Cobo-Díaz J.F., Chen W., Le Floch G., 2017. Challenges facing the biological control strategies for the

Postia placenta 332, 339, 606 et seq., 631 Pycnoporus cinnabarinas 631 Pyricularia oryzae 20 Rhizoctonia solani 20 Saccharomyces Schizophyllum commune 631 – cerevisiae 641 – diastacicus 243 Serpula – himantioides 339 – lacrymans 339, 631 Staphylococcus aureus 619 Stereum – hirsuta 631 – sanguinolentum 454, 607, 641 Trametes – hirsuta 504, 507 – serialis 631 – versicolor 41, 104, 210, 455 Trichoderma – harzianum 641 – reesei 400 et seq., 623 – viride 641 Tyromyces palustris 41, 214, 339, 631 Wolfi poria – cocos

). [2] Iwasaki, S.; Nozoe, S.; Okuda, S.; Sato, Z.; Kozaka, T. Isolation and structural elucidation of a pyhtotoxic substance produced by Pyricularia oryzae Cavara. Tetrahedron Lett . 1969 , 45 , 3977–3980. [3] Nukina, M.; Ikeda, M.; Umezawa, T.; Tasaki, H. Pyriculariol, a new phytotoxic metabolite of Pyricularia oryzae Cavara. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1981 , 45 , 2161–2162. [4] Nukina, M.; Otuki, T.; Kurebayashi, T.; Hosokawa, K.; Sekine, M.; Ito, S.; Suenaga, M.; Sato, A.; Sassa, T. New phytotoxic metabolites produced by the blast disease fungi and microbial

chalcone synthase mRNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana in a light-dependent manner, Plant Physiol., 1995, 108, 39–46 [4] Boter M., Ruíz-Rivero O., Abdeen A., Prat S., Conserved MYC transcription factors play a key role in jasmonate signaling both in tomato and Arabidopsis, Gene Dev., 2004, 18, 1577–1591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.297704 [5] Wang L., An C., Qian W., Liu T., Li J., Chen Z., Detection of the putative cis-region involved in the induction by a Pyricularia oryzae elicitor of the promoter of a gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in rice, Plant Cell Rep