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QS 20 Q 18:9–26 . Or did you imagine that the people of the Cave and al-Raqim were a unique wonder among Our revelations? . Remember when the youths took refuge in a cave, saying: “Our Lord, bring down upon us mercy from on high, and make it easy for us to find the right way to follow in this matter.” . So We sealed their ears in the cave for a number of years, . then We brought them forth in order to learn which of the two groups was more accu- rate as to the time they spent. ..We shall now narrate to you their story, in truth. They were


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this paper was to identify how students of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn perceived food security at household level. It was verified whether selected students were able to define properly the terms connected with the topic and how food safety was assessed.

Materials and methods: The survey was performed using a questionnaire as the research tool. The survey was conducted at three faculties in the following courses of studies: economics, law, and bioengineering of food production. Statistical data were included.

Results: Most of the respondents considered food security at household level in Poland to be at a satisfying level. In most respondent’s households, expenditure on food in relation to income was at a higher level than the national average.

Conclusions: Food security in the households of the surveyed students was ensured. The economic availability of food in the analysed households was good, as most respondents were able to purchase high quality food products.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to assess the phenomena of sigma convergence of labour productivity in agriculture and other sectors of rural economy in Polish regions during 2003 – 2014 in the context of the amount of European funds designated for agriculture and rural areas. European supprt was compared to the Gross Added Value of agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishery.

Materials and methods: The subject literature and statistical data received from the Agricultural Modernization Agency and the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office were used. The empirical data regarding the level of agriculture in regions as well as the data on the resources utilised from the European Union were examined in order to assess the correlation between them and the phenomenon of regional sigma-convergence.

Results: The study confirms the sigma convergence of the Gross Value Added per units of funding obtained from the European Union Budget and different level of sigma convergence of GVA / PE in regions.

Conclusions: Sigma convergence assessment of the Gross Value Added per person employed in regions shows that in the analyzed period three phases could be distinguished: convergence (2003 – 2008), divergence (2008 – 2010) and stagnation (2010 – 2014).


Since many types of food are experience goods and have a collective reputation, the food industry has various minimum quality standards. However, in the food industry, sometimes not all firms adhere to the standard, and consumers do not always distinguish between compliant and non-compliant firms. This paper finds that when there is only partial compliance, having a food quality standard or increasing compliance for the standard does not always increase profits for the firms adhering to the standard, even though average industry quality increases. Potential solutions to the free riding problem are analyzed.


This paper examines the impact of a food contamination scare in the dairy sector on dairy exports. We investigate this question in the context of the 2013 Whey Protein Concentrate contamination incident in New Zealand. We assess the impact of this incident on dairy exports using synthetic control methods. A synthetic counterfactual scenario where the incident did not occur is developed using weighted information from other countries unaffected by the scare. We find that there was an initial negative shock to the exports of products that were thought to have been contaminated, but that there were no significant sustained impacts on other dairy products. The affected products made up only a small proportion of New Zealand dairy exports, with the vast majority of dairy exports being unaffected. Infant formula exports appear to have recovered more than a year after the scare. However, whey product exports (the contaminated product) remain lower than they otherwise would have been.


This article focuses on the economics of labeling of genetically modified (GM) products in an international trade context with coexistence of both GM and traditional products and asymmetric information. Even though the scientific consensus is that GM food products are safe for human consumption, there has been a lack of acceptance by a growing segment of consumers, which has resulted in reduced or curbed demand for GM food products. The size of the anti-GM consumer segment differs across countries and suggests that coexistence will continue in a subset of countries for the near future. Many countries have developed regulations, approval processes, and labelling policies that largely reflect the economics and politics specific to each country. Hence, different labeling policies have emerged across countries. These differences in policies will continue to create difficulties, and may lead to the dominance of private standards.


This article provides a conceptual framework to understand benefits and costs of private minimum quality standards, increasing seller reputation or warranties when there is a collective reputation for online platforms. Our framework uses a dual reputation model where consumers have a quality expectation based on the reputation of the platform and the reputation of the seller. We also analyze the benefits and costs of various types of fees associated with online platforms and find that the optimal fee structure depends on whether quality concerns or market power concerns are greater. Fees that are fixed, or only depend on quantity, increase market power, but do not hurt product quality. Therefore, they should be used if collective reputation is the main concern. Fees that depend on prices exacerbate bad quality incentives for firms, so they should only be considered if quality is not a concern for consumers. The optimal quality standard depends on the fee structure, as well as the level of compliance to that standard.


The aim of the article was to present changes which took place in the financing of the agricultural sector in Poland after 2015, i.e. from the moment when a new economic option started to emerge in the national economic policy. A transition from the pro-liberal to the pro-social option is noticeable, which is reflected in the restrictions on expenditures in the national agricultural budget. Similar trends can be observed in the expenditures from the European funds budget, which are also increasingly lower. Symptoms of the renationalisation of the agricultural budget can also be observed, consisting in an initial increase in national expenditures and a relative decrease in the expenditures from the European funds budget, but to a different extent in the years under study. The article analyses the level, then the share of expenditures on the agricultural sector in the budget altogether and in GDP, taking into consideration both the expenditures on the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund (ASIF) and funds from the EU budget. Next, it concentrates more closely on relations in the financing of domestic agriculture from national and EU funds, and finally, points to the social issues related to the agricultural sector through the prism of expenditures on ASIF.