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), and oncogenic Ras mutants that cannot hydrolyze GTP are found in 20–30% of human tumors ( Downward, 2003 ). Both GAP deregulation and mutation also contribute to tumor formation. The Ras GTPase activator protein (RasGAP) Rasal is epigenetically silenced in many tumors ( Jin et al., 2007 ; Ohta et al., 2009 ), and mutations in RasGAP neurofibromin promotes the dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway, being therefore responsible for neurofibromatosis1, an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome ( Dasgupta and Gutmann, 2003 ). The molecular mechanism of RasGAP

shown relatively little improvement over the past decade [ 5 , 6 ]. The majority of patients with advanced ovarian cancer experience relapse and eventually succumb to ovarian cancer. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. RASAL1, encoding a member of RAS-GAP, can hydrolyze GTP to GDP and inactivate the Ras protein, thereby participating in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis [ 7 , 8 ]. RASAL1, has recently been identified as an important tumor suppressor for numerous cancers [ 8 , 9 ]. Liu et al

cultivars with resistance to these pathogens. The study was supported by the Latvian Ministry of Agri- culture within the research project 24/2008-2014 “Evalua- tion of the cereal cultivars to diseases in Latvian agro- climatic conditions”. A23 HYBRIDISATION BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN AND ASIAN FORMS OF HARTING’ VOLE MICROTUS HARTINGI (RODENTIA, ARVICOLINAE) AND MICROTUS SOCIALIS Tanya Zorenko and Isaak Rashal Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, LATVIA tatjana.zorenko@lu.lv, izaks.rasals@lu.lv The aim of the investigation was to identify particularities of hybridisation

The Journal of Latvian Academy of Sciences
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, Berlin/Boston typEsEttinG Compuscript Ltd., Shannon, Ireland printinG Franz X. Stückle Druck und Verlag e.K., Ettenheim Printed in Germany CovEr illustration The domain architecture of Rasal, a Ras/Rap dual GTPase-activating protein (GAP), has been unravelled by the combination of low-resolution negative staining electron microscopy 3D reconstruction and molecular docking of high-resolution structures of domain homologues, offering a more complete understanding of the role of these modular domains in the Ras/Rap dual-specificity mechanism. On the front cover four

.D.M. (1996). TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comp. Appl. in Biosci. , 12 , 357-358. Pedersen, B.H. (2006). DNA fingerprints of 51 sweet and sour Prunus accessions using Simple Sequence Repeats. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotechnology , 81 (1), 118-124. Powell, W., Machray, G.C. & Provan, J. (1996). Polymorphism revealed by simple sequence repeats. Trends Plant Sci. , 1 , 215-221. Rashal, I., Lacis, G. (1999). Accessions of horticultural plants in the Latvian plant genetic resources data base. In: Ikase, L., Skrivele, M., Rasals

difference of opinion äs to the name of the Iinäm to whom Ij the authorship of the Rasä'il could be attributed. Others declare that i they were compiled by the Mu'tazilite dialecticians of the first cen- tury.5> Qifti in spite of the authority of Abu Hayyän, which he • quotes at length faithfully mentions the existence of schools in his tirnes and before which attributed the authorship of the Rasä'il to i! an 'Alid Imäm and the doubts entertained abotit the validity of this ! theory. He does not definitely say that the Rasä^l were written by ! the group of men, who are

), isoform-selective PI3K-α inhibition ( Yadav et al., 2016 ), PARP-1/2 inhibition activity ( Zhou et al., 2018 ). Quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione moiety could be constructed by cyclization of 2-aminobenzonitrile with DMF ( Rasal and Yadav, 2016 ), the reaction of CO 2 and 2-aminobenzonitriles ( Ma et al., 2013 ), carbonylation and then cyclization of anthranilamide ( Li, 2009 ), and treatment of substituted anthranilic acid with potassium cyanate ( El-Brollosy, 2007 ). However, quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones can be synthesized via many methods but most of them suffer from

mice show severe lens and eye abnormalities ( Greenlees et al., 2015 ). Dual-specificity GAPs The SynGAP group includes SynGAP1 (synaptic GTPase activating protein), Dab2ip (disabled 2 interacting protein, also called Ask1-interacting protein 1, Aip1), Ras protein activator like 2 (Rasal2, nGAP) and Rasal3 that show a similar domain structure ( Figure 1 ). SynGAP1 is a dual-specificity GAP for Ras and Rap1. Its phosphorylation by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) alters the ratio of its Rap1 to Ras GAP

. Hamdi, N.; Dixneuf, P. H.: In Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg (2007). Hamdi N. Dixneuf P. H. In Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 10. Basanagouda, M.; Kulkarni, M. V.; Sharma, D.; Gupta, V. K.; Pranesha; Sandhyarani, P.; Rasal, V. P.: Synthesis of some new 4-aryloxmethylcoumarins and examination of their antibacterial and antifungal activities. J. Chem. Sci. 121 (2009) 485–495. 10.1007/s12039-009-0058-z Basanagouda M. Kulkarni M. V. Sharma D. Gupta V. K. Pranesha; Sandhyarani P. Rasal V. P