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(1999); received May 5/May 19, 1999 Magnaporthe grisea, Pyricularia oryzae, Appressorium Formation, Antifungal Compounds, Alternative Oxidase, Respiratory Inhibitors Appressorium formation in germinating conidia of Magnaporthe grisea was induced on a hydrophilic (noninductive) surface by antifungal compounds. Respiratory inhibitors or un­ coupling agents such as strobilurins, antimycin A, myxothiazol, rotenone, pterulone A, and oligomycin A were particularly effective whereas sodium cyanide had no effect. Cyclosporin A was effective only at high concentrations

growth rate is 600% and is commensurate with that observable following an auxin treatment. This hyperelongation growth, in contrast to the auxin-induced growth, begins without a lag phase. The growth “burst” following anaerobiosis is similarly to auxin-induced elongation growth, and is suppressed increasingly by neutral or more alkaline buffers. Hyperelongation growth is suppressed by respiratory inhibitors and uncouplers. A complete inhibition is effected with KCN (0.5 mM) sodium azide (0.5 mM) and CCCP (1 |iM); amytal (in the range 0.5 to 1 mM) and sodium

REFERENCES Arora B, Punia RS, Kalra R, Chugh SN, Arora DR. (1995). Histopathological changes in aluminium phosphide poisoning. J Indian Med Assoc 93 (10): 380–381. Jain AK, Nigam M, Garg SD, Dubey BP, Arora A. (2005). Aluminium phosphide poisoning – Autopsy findings. JIAFM 27 (1): 35–39. Bolter C, Chefurka W. (1989). Extra mitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide from insects and mouse liver mitochondria using respiratory inhibitors--phosphine, nyxothiazol, antimycin and spectral analysis of inhibited cytochromes. Arch Biochem Biophys 278 (1): 65

Forensic Med 2003;10:145-52. PMID: 15275009 8. Bolter CJ, Chefurka W. Extramitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide from insect and mouse liver mitochondria using the respiratory inhibitors phosphine, myxothiazol, and antimycin and spectral analysis of inhibited cytochromes.Arch Biochem Biophys 1990;278:65-72. PMID: 2321971 9. Mehrpour O, Alfred S, Shadnia S, Keyler DE, Soltaninejad K, Chalaki N, Sedaghat M. Hyperglycemia in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning as a potential prognostic factor. Hum Exp Toxicol 2008;27:591-5. doi: 10.1177/0960327108096382 10. Mehrpour O

apart. Pyrophosphate therefore probably owes its action as a respiratory inhibitor to its two acid groups rather than to its power of forming complexes with catalytic metals". Über die Pyrophosphathemmung der Succinodehydrogenase 271 von Euler3) bat mitgeteilt, daß die Isocitricodehydrogenase durch Mangan- und Magnesiumionen aktiviert und durch Pyro- phosphat gehemmt wird. Da er aber keine Aktivierung der Succinodehydrogenase durch Mangan feststellen konnte, teilt er die Überzeugung von Leloir und Dixon betreffs der Pyrophosphat- hemmung der Succinodehydrogenase. Wir

shoot as inorganic phosphate accompanied by only a small amount of a single organic compound. 2 :4-dinitrophe- nol (D N P), which is a respiratory inhibitor reduces the uptake of phosphorus and also the amount of esterification, and hence causes accelerated upward movement to the shoot4. D20 is known to act as a metabolic inhibitor5, and slows down respiration of seeds 6. It is quite probable therefore that D20 in this case acts as a inhibitor like DNP and causes increased transport to the shoot inspite of reduced total uptake. Whether this is caused by

mitochondria using the respiratory inhibitors phosphine, myxothiazol, and antimycin and spectral analysis of inhibited cytochromes. Arch Biochem Biophys 1990;278:65-72. Chugh SN, Arora V, Sharma A, Chugh K. Free radical scavengers and lipid peroxidation in acute aluminium phosphide poisoning. Indian J Med Res 1996;104:190-3. Dua R, Gill KD. Aluminium phosphide exposure: implications on rat brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence system. Pharmacol Toxicol 2001;89:315-9. Abdollahi M, Ranjbar A, Shadnia S, Nikfar S, Rezaie A. Pesticides and oxidative stress: a review

production by triplet chlorophyll, no longer function­ ing in electron transport. The latter case could ex­ plain the red peak in the action spectrum for AFM activity in Chlamydomonas eugamentos [23]. There is no compelling evidence that respiration is involved in AF or NDPE action. Although Duke et al., [9] found respiratory inhibitors to significantly reduce the effects of AF on cucumber, later work showed that the effect may have been indirect [24]. In these later studies the activity of AF was found to be almost identical at 3 as at 25 °C and antimycin A was

production by triplet chlorophyll, no longer function­ ing in electron transport. The latter case could ex­ plain the red peak in the action spectrum for AFM activity in Chlamydomonas eugamentos [23]. There is no compelling evidence that respiration is involved in AF or NDPE action. Although Duke et al., [9] found respiratory inhibitors to significantly reduce the effects of AF on cucumber, later work showed that the effect may have been indirect [24]. In these later studies the activity of AF was found to be almost identical at 3 as at 25 °C and antimycin A was

durch Ph. sein. Summary Phloridzin in low concentrations causes rapid swelling of rat liver and kidney mitochondria. The phloridzin-induced swelling is prevented by ATP and Mg2® and also by 2.4-dinitrophenol. The swelling action of phloridzin is completely abolished under anaerobic conditions in which the carriers of the respiratory chain are in the completely reduced state. By use of the respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A it was found that maintenance of mitochondrial DPN in the reduced state specifically blocks the swelling action of phloridzin. The