neurotransmission, alcoholism, and RewardDeficiencysyndrome. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;132B(1):29-37. 24. Forbes E, Brown S, Kimak M, Ferrell R, Manuck S, Hariri A. Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14(1):60-70. 25. Zack M, Poulos CX. Amphetamine primes motivation to gamble and gambling-related semantic networks in problem gamblers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29(1):195-207. 26. Weintraub D, Stewart S, Shea JA, Lyons K, Pahwa R, Driver-Dunckley E
its involvement in reward
behavior. Reward-deficiencysyndrome has been
specifically identified regarding comorbid addictive,
impulsive, and compulsive behaviors.
ALCOHOL AND SUICIDE: GENERAL AND STUDENT
A recent study consisting of approximately 100
completed adolescent suicides found that nearly 42%
had an alcohol-use disorder, as well as co-morbid
antisocial disorders or mental disorders, disturbed
family backgrounds, or disturbing life events. Suicidal
behavior in alcohol-dependant individuals appears to be
closely associated with a high
., CORIC V., BRACKEN
M. B., LECKMAN J. F. (2006): A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treat-
ment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, in: Molecular Psychiatry, 11: 622-32.
BLUM K., NOBLE E. P. (2001): Rewarddeficiencysyndrome (RDS): a biogenic model for the
diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive , and compulsive behaviors, in: Molecular
Psychiatry, 6: S2-2.
CARTER A., BELL E., RACINE E., HALL W. (2011): Ethical issues raised by proposals to
treat addiction using deep brain stimulation, in: Neuroethics, 4: 129-42.
CARTER A., HALL W
Neurotransmission, Alcoholism, and RewardDeficiencySyndrome.” Am -
erican Journal of Medical Ge ne tics 132B (1): 29–37.
Brochet, F., and D. Dubourdieu. 2001. “Wine Descriptive Language Supports
Cognitive Specificity of Chemical Senses.” Brain and Language 77: 187–96.
Castriota- Scanderberg, A., et al. 2005. “The Appreciation of Wine by Somme-
liers: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Study of Sensory Integration.” Neuro -
image 25: 570–78.
Diamond, J. M. 1997. Why Is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New
York: Basic Books.
———. 2005. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates
nature, it must have drawn attention to the sexual value of its object (or rather,
its erotic value).” In the film, the psychologist Boris (Timur Badalbeili) diagnoses each of
the men he treats with “rewarddeficiencysyndrome” (sindrom defitsita udovletvorennosti),
characterized by a compulsive need to amplify one’s stimulation due to a decreased feeling
of pleasure. This deficiency manifests itself in the film through two clusters: first, Aleksei’s
(Nikita Tarasov) unhappy marriage and his fetishistic infatuation with a mentally disabled
; Crime; and specific
Gandhi, Mohandas, 100, 102–103, 110,
116, 117, 150, 240
Gender: and addiction, 1, 199–200; and
alcohol, 24–25, 106–107, 148; and vice,
29, 62–63, 64–66, 91, 127, 129; and
gambling, 50–51, 62; and Prohibition,
109; and gambling, 194–195; and social
media, 200, 203–205; and swearing,
202; and pornography, 203–205, 217
Genes: expression of, 4, 176, 180; and
addiction, 7, 9, 89–90, 168, 180–181,
182; and rewarddeficiencysyndrome,
175–176; and social class, 176; and
hormesis, 224. See also Alcohol: and
dence: Shared neural pathways and genes. J Psychoactive Drugs 2010;42(2):147–51.
23. Blum, K, PJ, Sheridan RC, Wood ER, Braverman TJ, Chen JG, Cull et al. The D2 dopa-
mine receptor gene as a determinant of rewarddeficiencysyndrome. J Social Med
24. Fernandez-Castillo, N, B, Cormand C, Roncero C, Sanchez-Mora L, Grau-Lopez B, Gon-
zalvo et al. Candidate pathway association study in cocaine dependence: The control of
neurotransmitter release. World J Biol Psychiatry 2011. [epub ahead of print]
25. Agrawal, A, MT. Lynskey Candidate genes for
al., “ ‘Liking’ and ‘Wanting’ Linked to RewardDeficiencySyndrome
(RDS): Hypothesizing Differential Responsivity in Brain Reward Circuitry,” Current
Phar ma ceu ti cal Design 18 (2012): 113–118, typifies research on innate susceptibility.
10. Charles P. O’Brien, “With Addiction, Breaking a Habit Means Resisting a Reflex,”
Weekend Edition, NPR, October 20, 2013, http:// www . npr . org / 2013 / 10 / 20 / 238297311 / with
- addiction - breaking - a - habit - means - resisting - a - reflex.
11. Robert Weiss, “Sadly, Tech Addicts Have Taken a Page from Drug Abusers,” Huff