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2 The Sacred Place The space in which human life is set is far from being homogeneous in our experience. Only in a world 'without form and void' could one space be the same as another. and then all space would be equally mean- ingless to us. Spaces. or the different places within space. have meaning and value only because of the different organization and content they contain. which mark them out from one another. Among the many differentiations those with the greatest meaning and value are distin- guished from the more ordinary places through their association

17 / Sacred Places The visible sacred world of the Zinacantecos is characterized by strong emphasis upon two features of the natural topography of highland Chiapas—VITS (mountain) and CH'EN (cave)—and two types of man-made constructions—KRUS (cross) and KALVARIO (literally, "calvary," but signify- ing special types of cross shrines). VITS is a Tzotzil variant of a proto-Mayan word WITZ tha t still occurs in all Mayan languages (Kaufman 1964: 110) and designates mountain (or hill), CH'EN is likewise a Tzotzil variant of a proto-Mayan word still found in

T H E SACRED PLACES American soil requiring a more energetic furrow, Jefferson designed a New World plough, so specifiable that any blacksmith could duplicate it. Thus every smithy would become one cell in a diffuse invisible plough factory. On trial designs for Charlottesville buildings he computed wall by wall the numbers of bricks that would have to be fabricated one by one by hand: a figure to minimize. Garden walls two bricks thick being uneconomical, he made thinner ones stand up by curving them, serpentine. Not brute materials but only mind

APPENDIX 2 Sacred Places The lists that follow give all places in the Iliad and the Odyssey described by the epithets hieros, zatheos, egatheos, and dios. The most common of the four is hieros, used with the following places: Place Frequency Location Iliad Odyssey Other modifiers POLEIS Ilios Troad 23 2 II.: well-inhabited, Troy 0 1 well-founded, steep polis, great astu of Priam, etc. Od.: Priam’s ptoliethron, etc. (see above) Pergamon 1 0 topmost, with a tempk (Troy) Thebes Troad 1 0 of Apollo (tieos) well-inhabited, under Zeleia Troad 2 0

sovereign right to a shrine. They may involve access to the site, maintenance of its integrity, conduct within it, or political factors complicated by the centrality and vulnerability of the site. Is conflict at contested sites inevitable? In brief: yes. Because of the indivisibility challenge, cases of peaceful coexistence at sacred places claimed by multiple parties are few and far between. Two exceptions to this pattern bear scrutiny: believers from competing religious groups can worship peacefully in the same space if that space is of exceedingly low

flags of many countries move ma- jestically in either direction. On the nearby railroad bridge, trains roar by at the rate of two per minute. If one has lived long enough, one remembers pictures of the devastated city immedi- ately after the War in which the Dom, the victim of seventeen direct bomb hits, was a hollow shell surrounded by rubble. Once again, this historic city where the river meets the road has == chapter one == Sacred Place, Sacred Time 23 T opposite: The Dom at Köln. Photo by Reiner Gaertner, with permission. managed to survive, the Dom’s pinnacles

from west to east, and nearly the same from north to south. The only other place that I cared to visit was the Chapel of St. Helena, to which I descended eastward from the grand circular aisle by thirty steps. It is a half-subterranean church, nearly fifty feet square. There are various altars and sacred places in it connected with the " in- vention " of the cross, which, however, actually took place in a real cave, to which one descends still farther eastward by twelve steps. In this cave the pious Helena (so the Romish Church tells us) was rewarded for her

half of this volume focused on the mitigation of conflicts over sacred places. Managing these disputes requires recognizing that the religious elements of these conflicts are inextricably intertwined with their political components. Cooperation between political leaders who are interested in promoting conflict resolution and religious leaders who are capable of shap- ing and reshaping the meaning, value, and parameters of sacred places can Chapter Nine Lessons from Confl icts over Sacred Places 154 Chapter Nine ameliorate or even resolve disputes over sacred