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chemical analysis SEM scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDAX SEM with x-ray detector SIMS secondary ion mass spectroscopy SNMS sputtered neutral mass spectrometry XPS x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy The surface chemistry of cellulose fibers is important in both the manufacture and end use of paper and yet there are few techniques that can be used to analyze surface composition. It is clear that the surfaces of untreated cellulose fibers are heterogeneous and com- plex and details of the chemical composition at the molecular level are not available. Further

The observation and distribution of organic additives on paper surfaces using surface spectroscopic techniques Jacob S. Brinen, American Cyanamid Company, Stamford, Connecticut, USA Keywords: Additives, Surface. Paper, Mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, Size. SUMMARY: Incorporation of low levels of organic reagents into paper generally leads to improved performance properties in formation, wet strength, sizing and printability. The develop- ment of surface spectroscopic techniques provides a means of detecting

fluorinated sur- factant has been observed. With a time of flight (ToF) SIMS, both fluorine and organofluorine fragments can be mapped. These images show that the surfactant does not uniformly coat the paper fibers. ADDRESS OF THE AUTHORS: American Cyanamid Company, Stamford Research Laboratories, 1937 West Main Street, P.O. Box 60, Stamford, CT 06904-0060, USA. Nomenclatura: ASA alkenyl succinic anhydride SIMS secondary ion mass spectroscopy ToF time of flight XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy In part 1 of this series (l), the potential for using SIMS and

Franz R. Krueger Institut für Kernphysik der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt (Z. Naturforsch. 32 a, 1084-1092 [1977]; eingegangen am 15. Juli 1977) About the Mechanism of Fission-Fragment Induced Desorption The desorption of even big molecular ions after the passage of fission fragments is described by a short-lived collective perturbation of the surface potential, which is primarily caused by an ex­ citation of the electron plasma. In secondary ion mass spectroscopy and laser induced desorption similar perturbations occur. These processes can be described

Radiochim. Acta 89, 799–804 (2001)  by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Sorption studies of Cs+, Ba2+, and Co2+ ions on bentonite using radiotracer, ToF-SIMS, and XRD techniques By T. Shahwan and H. N. Erten∗ Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey (Received March 8, 2001; accepted May 25, 2001) Sorption / Cs / Ba / Co / Bentonite / ToF-SIMS Summary. The sorption behaviour of Cs+, Ba2+, and Co2+ ions on bentonite were investigated using the radiotracer method, Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF

particular, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used. These methods are different not only in their physical principle but also with respect to several practical aspects. For example, EDX and AES require calibration and, therefore, appropriate standards are necessary, whereas RBS provides quantitative composition data directly. SIMS analysis is commonly used in oxide-nitride film depth profiling [ 14 – 16 ] and particularly to quantify

Microscopy The effect of surface treatments on the surface characteristics of aluminium alloy 2024- T3 before the appearance of filiform corrosion (FFC) is investigated. The nature of the surface prior to coating and initiation of FFC, with particular respect to the intermetallics is investigated in this work. The SKPFM (Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy), ToF-SIMS (Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy), XPS (X-Ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) surface analysis techniques were used to characterize polished AA2024-T3

dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS; ION-TOF TOF, SIMS 5) was used to analyze B distribution in the B containing alloys and the scanning area is 300 μm×300 μm. The samples for OM observation were etched with a mixed solution of 4 g CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O + 20 ml deionized H 2 O + 20 ml HCl to reveal the microstructures. The carbon extraction replicas used for TEM observation were prepared with plating a carbon film on the sample surface which was etched with 4 g CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O + 20 ml deionized H 2 O + 20 ml HCl after being mechanically polished

. In the presence of iron and uranium a ternary Fe : U : citric acid complex is formed. We determined the molecular structure of the ternary complex in both the aqueous and solid phase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the presence of uni- and bi-dentate bonding of the citric acid to the metals, and the involvement of the α-hydroxyl group. Analysis of molecular fragments generated from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) confirmed the bonding of terminal carboxylate groups of citric acid to uranium and iron. Extended X

sample is illustrated using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and micro- FTIR analysis. Careful FTIR monitoring of variable sample reduction has helped to identify the pre- cautions required to reduce C (and H) infiltration in solid media assemblies and it appears that physical barriers can be more important than the chemical buffers traditionally employed. INTRODUCTION Examples of blackened samples prepared in piston-cyl- inder apparatus can be found throughout the experimental literature and many petrologists will acknowledge that sim- ilar problems are often