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The paper presents and discusses phenomenological facts about perceptual spaces and percepts, but ends with a few thoughts about possible causal explanations of such spaces. The overarching double-sided hypothesis claims that - from a phenomenological point of view - each individual animal has at each consciously perceived moment of time a sense-modality-neutral perceptual space, and that these perceptual spaces are so-called container spaces. This means, to be concrete, that blind persons, deaf persons, and all perceptually non-handicapped persons have the same kind of phenomenological perceptual space, a sense-modality-neutral container space. The causal reflections bring in James J. Gibson’s work on such matters.

Murata Junichi (Tokyo, Japan) What are Senses and Sense Modalities? From the Viewpoint of an Ecological Phenomenology Abstract: Perceptual experiences not only have cognitive aspects, through which we acquire information about some objects, but sensory aspects, through which we experience how the object appears. In the traditional view, the sensory aspects have been reduced to sensations or senses, which have the function of supplying materials for cognition. Against this view, E. Strauss characterized sensing as a kind of “communication” with the world in a

Linguistics 50–3 (2012), 395 – 420 0024–3949/12/0050–0395 DOI 10.1515/ling-2012-0014 © Walter de Gruyter The importance of TASTE verbs in some Khoe languages1 HIROSI NAKAGAWA Abstract Focusing on the perception verb systems in three little documented Khoe lan- guages, i.e., ǂHaba, G|ui, and G||ana, the present paper demonstrates their typologically unique feature, namely the crosslinguistically uncommon behav- ior of TASTE among the five sense modalities involved in perception verbs. By using the new findings the paper examines two models of the sense-modality

-specific semantic components and a number of general field-independent components that cut across all verbal semantic fields. As for the field of perception, the most important field-specific components are the five sense modalities: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. The most important general components are called activity, experience, and copulative. The distinction between an activity and an experience is illustrated by pairs such as look at vs. see and listen to vs. hear. Activity refers to an unbounded process that is consciously controlled by a human agent, whereas

Contents Editorial Preface| V Hans Feger (Berlin, Germany) Preface| 1 Hilge Landweer (Berlin, Germany) Embodiment Phenomenology East/West – Introduction| 3 I Experiencing the Living Body —体验生命体 Hermann Schmitz (Kiel, Germany) The Felt Body and Embodied Communication| 9 Bernhard Waldenfels (Bochum, Germany) Der Leib als Umschlagstelle zwischen Kultur und Natur| 20 Tanja Stähler (Sussex, UK) Exploring Pregnant Embodiment with Phenomenology and Butoh Dance| 35 Murata Junichi (Tokyo, Japan) What are Senses and Sense Modalities? From the Viewpoint of an Ecological

that in “connotational” phrases comprised of adjective-noun pairs (e.g., sweet baby) the noun will (1) be less associated with a specific sense modality (e.g., taste) than the nouns in non-connotational phrases, and that; (2) there will be greater distance between the sense modalities of the adjective and the sense modalities of the noun. For instance, in the phrase “sweet cake” the noun cake is clearly associated with “taste,” which is the same sense modality associated with “sweet.” In contrast, in the context of “sweet dreams” the noun “dreams” will be more


and ranging (LiDAR) or laser detection and ranging (LADAR). There are many forms of active imagers, like two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) LADAR, applying a scanning single or an array of many sensor elements. In past and current research, a lot of different sensing approaches were investigated to probe dedicated physical properties of surfaces within the scene by controlling the spatial and temporal illumination properties as well as the sensing modalities of the receiver side. Today, with the development of new detectors, like single photon avalanche

effect 214-217 remoteness (time) 108ss representation 9s mental 163 request 23 restriction, collocational 258 resultative 96-99 rise time (pitch) 218-225 salience 80-83 schwa 272s science 164-166 self-organization 185-187, 199 semantics 4, 123-179 differential 160 universal 103 sense modalities 123-161 signal, holistic 189 inventory 188 simulation (of phonetic structure) 181, 188-199 speech act 91 speech rate 214 segmental vs. featural structure 183s stack 36, 41 stress 250, 260-267 subject 72 subjectivity 110 substance (in universals) 67ss; see also form

modality into another. An intense experience in one sense modality, sight for example, can lead to an accompanying sensation in another modality, such as hearing. Synesthesia is simultaneously one of the most simple and the most complex articulations of signs. The simplest in that the signifier and the signified are the same, just shifted by a sense modality. The most complex in that the signifier and the signified are simultaneous. That is, we speak of a sound 'evoking' a certain color, the sound becomes a sign for that color, but actually the sound and the color occur

(Section 4). 1.1  Universals and the perception lexicon A lynchpin in the study of sensory language is Viberg’s (1983) survey of percep- tion verbs. In it, Viberg examined how the lexical field of perception is carved up Vision verbs dominate in conversation across cultures   33 in various languages according to sense modality (vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell) and more general semantic components which he called activity, ex- perience, and source-based. Activity refers to a process that is controlled by the perceiver (exemplified by the English verb look at