confrontations until 1763. The peace negotiations and peace treaties that concluded
the SilesianWars (1742, 1745), the War of the Austrian Succession (1748), the Seven
Years War (1763) and the War of the Bavarian Succession (1779) were concerned with
the hierarchy of the European monarchies and the question of whether Prussia would
be accepted as a new great power. Despite the well-established practice of multilateral
peace negotiations in congresses or with mediators, bilateral agreements concluded
prior to multilateral decisions shaped the outcome of
Voltaire on Anti- Machiavel.
1740 Death of Frederick William I; the crown prince becomes King Freder-
ick II in Prus sia on 31 May 1740.
Maria Theresa inherits the Austrian crown; War of the Austrian Suc-
cession ( until 1748).
First SilesianWar ( until 1742).
Frederick II, Anti- Machiavel.
1742 Frederick II, Memoirs for the History of the House of Brandenburg
(Mémoires pour servir à l’Histoire de la Maison de Brandebourg).
1744 Second SilesianWar ( until 1745).
1747 Inauguration of Sans- Souci Palace.
1748 Montesquieu, On the Spirit of the Laws (De l’esprit des
autobiography and biography.
Indeed, all texts examined by Epple are either biographies or autobiographies, with the
single exception of Louise von Blumenthal’s “Life of General von Zieten” (1797), which
expanded into a history of the SilesianWar, covering, in the author’s intention, events
that had been left out of Frederick II’s “History of the Seven Years War”. Epple argues
that all these texts shared a new historical sensibility – or, more precisely, that they
applied to historical narratives the Romantic notion of “sensibility” (Empfindsamkeit).
This “historiography of
and their Mercenaries. The Trencks in the Age of Revolution« that featured the exploits of Franz von der Trenck, a flamboyant and ruthless soldier, who led an exotic, fearsome group of »Pandurs« whom he recruited in the Balkans into the service of Maria Theresa during the SilesianWar. By highlighting Trenck’s guerilla warfare and brutal marauding violence in contrast to the limited and stylized warfare, Kreuger’s account of Trenck’s military career challenged conventional ideas about eighteenth-century combat. On one hand, Trenck appeared as a wild-man from the
/Karkonosze/Riesengebirge/Giant Mountains, which made our work somewhat more complicated, as the Jizera Mountains often appear on these old maps like a “younger brother” or a “byproduct”. Nevertheless, we believe that we can contribute to the field of border research using this new approach. A brief history of the borderline in the Jizera Mountains Historical context Since the “SilesianWars” in the mid 18th century, the borderline divided Bohemia (part of the Austrian monarchy) and Lower Silesia (part of the Prussian Kingdom, then part of unified Germany after 1871). This year of Germany’s unification
situation in Europe coincides with the first case
and that the relation between Spain and the Incas or Aztecs coincided with the
second, because the Spanish conquerors exterminated the Incas and Aztecs. The
last case represents the situation between France and Germany (1870-1945), the
situation between Prussia and the Habsburg Empire in the three Silesianwars
(1740-63), the Thirty Years War (1618-48) between catholic monarchies (Spain,
Habsburg Empire) and Protestant monarchies (Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands) or
the Sudanese civil wars (1955-present). Here we want
and comparison of the details of what was formerly believed to be primarily decorative and atmo-
spheric staffage figures, this paper argues that some of the figures and objects in Bellottos Viennese
vedute give evidence of a common theme – if not indeed a common narration – that underlies the
Keywords: Bernardo Bellotto; Iconography; Seven Years War; Third SilesianWar; Vienna;
Schlagworte: Bernardo Bellotto; Ikonographie; Siebenjähriger Krieg; Dritter Schlesischer
Krieg; Wien; Vedute
Wie zahlreiche Ausstellungen der jüngeren Zeit belegen, ist
some of the pivotal events of the century. In 1740, Friedrich II of Prussia
slipped unnoticed out of a masked ball to join his troops and begin the
first Silesianwar. In 1792, king Gustavus III of Sweden was assassinated
while taking part in a masked ball.8
Eighteenth-century people were more familiar with the experience of
wearing masks and of establishing relations with others who were
masked, than we can easily imagine today. Today, the phrase „he wears a
mask" would be taken entirely in the metaphorical sense of „he knows
how to hide his real feelings