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References 1. Stancu C, Sima A. Statins: mechanism of action and effects. J Cell Mol Med. 2001;5:378-387. 2. Jun SW. Inclusion complex of simvastatin with hydroxypropyl-betacyclodextrin using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process, MS thesis, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea, 2006 3. Rédai E, Sipos E, Kiss A, Tőkés B. Szimvasztatin zárványkomplex képzése random metil-β-ciclodextrinnel. Orvostudományi Értesítő. 2011;84(2): 101-103. 4. *** Primellose - product sheet information, DFE Pharma 5. Pani NR, Nath LK, Bhunia B. Formulation, development, and

References 1. Antons K.A., Williams C.D., Baker S.K., Philips P.S.: Clinical perspectives of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis. Am J Med 2006, 119, 400–409. 2. Black A.E., Hayes R.N., Roth B.D., Woo P., Woolf T.F.: Metabolism and excretion of atorvastatin in rats and dogs. Drug Metab Dispos 2000, 27, 916–992. 3. Chello M., Anselmi A., Spadaccio C., Patti G., Goffredo C., Di Sciascio G., Covino E.: Simvastatin increases neutrophil apoptosis and reduces inflammatory reaction after coronary surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2007, 83, 1374–1380. 4. Cui Q., Wang G.J., Su C

Endothelium Modulates Contractile Response to Simvastatin in Rat Aorta Concepción Pérez-Guerrero*, Marí a Á lvarez de Sotomayor, Maria Dolores Herrera and Elisa Marhuenda Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Profesor Garcia-Gonzalez s/n, 41012 Seville, Spain. Fax: 34-95-4233765. E-mail: aldesoto@fafar.us.es * Author for correspondence and reprints requests Z. Naturforsch. 55c, 121-124 (2000); received July 22/September 10/1999 HMG-CoA Reductase, Simvastatin, Endothelium, Rat Aorta Simvastatin is an inhibitor of HM G

Introduction Simvastatin decreases different types of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins through the inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase as well as reduces the risk of myocardial infarction [1] . The administration of simvastatin has been associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs), such as myopathy characterized by muscle inflammation, weakness, pain and increased blood concentration of creatinine kinase (CK) [2] . The observed incidences of statin-associated muscle symptoms vary from 7%–29% [3] . The development of the

, 1988, 36Suppl 3, 83–6 http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-198800363-00017 [5] Qiao Z., Ren J., Chen H., Simvastatin reduces expression and activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) in the aorta of hypercholesterolaemic atherosclerotic rabbits, J. Int. Med. Res., 2009, 37, 1029–37 [6] Corti R., Osende J.I., Fallon J.T., Fuster V., Mizsei G., Jneid H., et al., The selective peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist has an additive effect on plaque regression in combination with simvastatin in experimental atherosclerosis: in vivo study by

Drug Metab Drug Interact 2011;26(2):79–80 © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston. DOI 10.1515/DMDI.2011.106 Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure due to itraconazole and simvastatin association S é bastien Roques, Maria Lytrivi, Daniel Rusu, Jacques Devriendt and David De Bels * Intensive Care Department , Brugmann University Hospital, Brussels , Belgium Abstract We present the case of an 82-year-old man admitted to our hospital for muscle weakness. He was under simvastatin 20 mg per day and was given pulse itraconazole

REFERENCES 1. G. A. McClelland, R. J. Stubbs, J. A. Fix, S. A. Pogany and G. M. Zentner, Enhancement of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reducase inhibitor efficacy through administration of a controlled porosity osmotic pump dosage form, Pharm. Res . 8 (1991) 873–876; https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015899328105 2. A. A. Anshuman, K. R. Mahadik and A. Paradkar, Spray-dried amorphous solid dispersions of simvastatin, a low T g drug: In vitro and in vivo evaluations, Pharm. Re s. 22 (2005) 990–998; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-4594-z 3

therapeutic dosages without the risk of adverse effects in individuals with periodontitis who are otherwise systemically healthy, and this has been evaluated by investigators [5, 10]. Statins also inhibit the interleukin (IL) 1α-induced upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 [11]. A large body of literature is devoted to the study of the effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin, another drug that has been compared with simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, and fluvastatin in terms of efficacy [12]. Statins remain understudied in the field of periodontics. Hence, the aim of this

study is to assess the effect of L-carnitine on skeletal muscle contractility in an animal model of simvastatin-induced myopathy and clarify its possible mechanisms. Materials and methods Materials Simvastatin was obtained from commercially available drug manufactured by Suecal Pharmaceutical Company, Cairo, Egypt. L-carnitine was obtained from Sigma/EPC Pharmaceutical Company, Cairo, Egypt. Experimental animals Twenty-one Wistar female rats, 6 weeks old and weighing 100–120 g , were obtained from the animal house of the Medical Experimental Research Center (MERC

Clin Chem Lab Med 2012;50(3):441–448 © 2012 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston. DOI 10.1515/CCLM.2011.804 SLCO1B1 gene variability infl uences lipid-lowering effi cacy on simvastatin therapy in Southern Brazilians Vinicius A. Sortica 1 , Marilu Fiegenbaum 2 , Luciana O. Lima 2 , C é zar R. Van der Sand 3 , Luis C. Van der Sand 3 , Maria E.W. Ferreira 3 , Renan C. Pires 3 and Mara H. Hutz 1, * 1 Departamento de Gen é tica , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre , Brazil 2 Universidade Federal de Ci ê ncias da Sa