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The Spanish Conquest HI T H E T W O H I S T O B I C A L T H E S E S From the historical point of view it now seems useless (though fruit- ful enough from an ethical standpoint) to reopen the debate—which began twenty years after Columbus landed in the Antilles—as to whether the Spanish Conquest was a Christian crusade or whether it was an irruption of violence and pillage, as Bartolomé de las Casas branded it. It does honor to the sixteenth-century Spanish mind that this controversy could arise even against "reasons of state," and it is interesting to

Cha- mor ros, and the project had to be abandoned. An- gered, twenty-one Spanish soldiers (of whom only thirteen were armed with muskets) under Captain Juan de Santiago set out for Tumon on May 17 to punish Mata‘pang. The troops avoided an ambush on the way and proceeded to the largely deserted village, where they burned a dozen or so houses and destroyed all the proas they found. They captured one man and his CHAPTER 4 The Spanish Conquest 1672–1698 The Spanish Conquest 1672–1698 55 wife. On the way back, the soldiers burned more houses along the beach at

Burghley’s need to divert Whitgift and Hatton’s increasing attacks on the Presbyterians in 1591 met Dee’s need to resur- rect his Court career. The Catholic exile’s accusation that Dee conjured for Elizabeth’s Privy Council reflects Burghley’s remarkable turnaround in Church politics in the intervening few months. In late 1591 he used Dee’s c h a p t e r 1 9 Conjuring up a Spanish Conquest 218 t h e a r c h - c o n j u r o r o f e n g l a n d occult abilities to force this sea change, which led to the imprisonment, torture and execution of Catholic priests and

to have existed with respect to the definition of these two entities, the family and the household. As a consequence we are obliged to consider at length the development of these ideas in Mexico since the Spanish conquest and their expression in various types of counts and enumerations. At the same time we must evaluate the status of the family, or household, as an index to total number of persons in the community, and its usefulness for computation. As a point of departure we may observe what the con- temporary census demographer regards as the basic

Chapter 2 Sexual Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest: Amerindian Women and the Spanish Conquest of Alta California Antonia I. Castañeda In the morning, six or seven soldiers would set out together . . . and go to the distant rancherías [villages] even many leagues away. When both men and women at the sight of them would take off running . . . the soldiers, adept as they are at lassoing cows and mules, would lasso Indian women—who then became prey for their unbridled lust. Several Indian men who tried to defend the women were shot to death

, they were destructive rather than constructive. To understand what Sahagún did, some background in the history of the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica may be necessary. As noted above, after Cortés had used an Alter-style approach to immisce himself in Aztec culture, he did not hesitate to change his cultural model approach, treating the Aztecs as barbarians and thus smashing the “idols” of their temples. He had many followers, not least among the representatives of monastary orders which soon invaded the continent. Many of these “idols” were really destroyed, but

The Martyrdom of Diego Ortiz (1571) by Antonio de la Calancha [1638]
Why a Few Are Rich and the People Poor
Atlantic Networks and Revolution in Bourbon Río de la Plata

General de las Cosas de Nueva España seems to respond to both speeds, since its narrative of the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in forty-one chapters alternates between moments of great dramatic tension and an endless account of episodes which seem to lead nowhere. Thus, for example, (1) the omens of the Conquest, (2) fleeing from Tenochtitlan to Tlaxcala and (3) the siege imposed by the Spaniards upon the city of Tenochtitlan are presented as stasis of global history, where at least in appearance the plot stagnates, dotted with moments of krisis , notably the arrival