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[1] Ahmad, R., Srivastava, A. K. (2007): Biochemical composition and metabolic pathways of filarial worms Setaria cervi: search for new antifilarial agents. J. Helminthol., 81(3): 261–280. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X07799133 [2] Khoramnia, R., Wegner, A. (2010): Subconjunctival Dirofilaria repens. N. Engl. J. Med., 363:e37. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMicm1003006 [3] Melsom, H. A., Kurtzhals, J. A. L., Qvortrup, K., Bargum, R., Barfod, T. S. (2011): Subconjunctival Dirofilaria repens Infestation

References 1. Arvanitis , P. et al. Ophthalmic dirofi lariasis. - Am. J. Ophthal.,123, 1997, 689-691 2. Fuentes , I. et al. Human subcutaneous dirofi lariosis caused by Dirofi laria repens in Ibiza, Spain. - Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 51, 1994, 401-404 3. Gautam , V. et al. Subconjunctival infection with Dirofi laria repens. - Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 55, 2002, № 2, 47-48. 4. Marty, P. 1997, Human dirofi lariasis due to Dirofi laria repens in France. A review of reported cases. - Parassitologia, 39, 1997, № 4, 383-386. 5. Pamplione , S., T. Canestri et F. Rivasi. Human

, Tranfa F: Orbital dirofilariasis. Eur J Ophthalmol 1998; 8:258–262 [4] Pampiglione S, Canestri TG, Rivasi F: Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: a review of world literature. Parassitologia 1995; 37:149–193 [5] Tzanetou K, Gogou C, Giannoulopoulos A, Patralexis C, Fragia K: Fibrous subcutaneous nodule caused by Dirofilaria repens. Travel Med Infect Dis 2009; 7:318–322 [6] Koltas IS, Ozcan K, Duran N: Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens. Ann Saudi Med 2002; 22:75–76 [7] Raniel Y

:// [5] Hulbert M.F., Yang Y.C., Pennefather P.M., et al., Pulasatile ocular blood flow and intraocular injection of lignocaine: influence of additives, J. Glaucoma, 1998, 7, 413–416 [6] Coupland S.G., Deschenes M.C., Hamilton R.C., Impairement of ocular blood flow during regional orbital anesthesia, Can. J. Ophthalmol., 2001, 36, 140–144 [7] Huber K.K., Remky A., Effect of retroorbital versus subconjunctival anesthesia on retroorbital hemodynamics, Br. J. Ophthalmol., 2005, 89, 719–723 http

Introduction Subconjunctival hemorrage (SCH) is a common bleeding manifestation that leads to frequent access to eye care clinics and is a cause of concern for patients and their general practitioners [1, 2]. SCH is one frequent cause of acute ocular redness [3], conventionally defined as the red eye, the most common ocular disorder in primary care [1, 2]. SCH are characterized by the sudden, often spontaneous, appearance of an area of bleeding under the conjunctiva. The diagnosis is based on the observation of a clear red area, usually unilateral, localized and

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INJECTABLE POLYMER-BASED LOCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR SUBCONJUNCTIVAL TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA Sternberg K 1 , Voss K 1 , Kastner C 1 , Bernsdorf A 1 , Lurtz C 1 , Stachs O 2 , Guthoff RF 2 , Schmitz K-P 1 1 Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany 2 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany Abstract: Polymer-based local drug delivery (LDD) systems have found applications in diverse medical fields. Due to implant-induced, undesirable

fourth human case caused by Dirofilaria repens in a new endemic region of Slovakia. J. Helminthol., 87: 85–90. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X12000077 [7] Janjetović, Z., Arar, Z. V., Paradzik, M T., Sapina, L., Bitunjac, M., Lojen, G., Marinculić, A. (2010): Ocular dirofilariasis: a case report. Acta Med. Croatica, 64(1): 41–5 (In Croatian) [8] Khoramnia, R., Wegner, A. (2010): Subconjunctival Dirofilaria repens. N. Engl. J. Med., 363, 25: e37. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMicm1003006 [9] Koltas, S

. This drug depot is formed by in situ polymerisation after injection into the subconjunctival space. To test the in vivo drug release of timolol in serum and aqueous humour, a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) method was developed and tested using spike- and recovery experiments, and on in vivo samples after topical application. Samples of serum and aqueous humour were taken from New Zealand White rabbits. For topical application, a commercially available formulation of timolol was used. This study presents results concerning the recovery of

.1186/1756-3305-5-84. [8] Pampiglione S., Vakalis N., Lyssimachou A., Kouppari G., Orihel T.C. 2001. Subconjunctival zoonotic Onchocerca in an Albanian man. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 95, 827–832. [9] Rodonaja T.E. 1967. A new species of nematode, Onchocerca lupi n. sp., from Canis lupus cubanensis. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoy SSR, 45, 715–719 (in Russian). [10] Sallo F., Eberhard M.L., Fok E., Baska F., Hatvani I. 2005. Zoonotic intravitreal Onchocerca in Hungary

- pared to conventional surgical approaches. Nevertheless, available devices suffer from complications like hypotony and fibrotic encapsulation. The current work focuses on the development of a minimally invasive implantable drug- eluting microstent for the drainage of aqueous humour into suprachoroidal or subconjunctival space. Technical feasibi- lity of a micro-scale resorbable nonwoven for the prevention of hypotony and of a drug-eluting coating for the prevention of fibrosis is assessed. Microstent base bodies with a length of 10 mm and an inner