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References Acosta, J. R. (1964). El Palacio del Quetzalpapalotl. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Angulo Villasenor, J. (2007). Early Teotihuacan and its Government. In V. L. Scarborough & J. E. Clark (Eds.), The Political Economy of Ancient Mesoamerica: Transformations During the Formative and Classic Periods (pp. 83-100). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Blanton, R. E. (2016). How Humans Cooperate: Confronting the Challenges of Collective Action. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. Blanton, R. E., & Fargher, L. F. (2008

12 Dolmetscher für Teotihuacan (Perso na ι Deda rf sp la η u ng) Teotihuacan (Mexiko). — Während des ganzen Jahres sind die Pyramiden dieses archäologischen Mekkas der Anziehungspunkt für viele Touristen, vor allem Ame- rikaner. Den noch aus der präkolumbianischen Zeit verbliebenen Überresten (der Sonnenpyramide, der Mondpyramide und anderen Monumenten) hat man eine Anzahl von Rekonstruktionen hinzugefügt. Alles in allem bilden diese Monumente einen der hauptsächlichen archäologischen Schätze der Gegend um Mexiko. Für die ausländischen Touristen führt die

CHAPTER FIVE CARVED 'DISEMBODIED EYES' OF TEOTIHUACAN by Jonathan Ott1 oituated a few hours' drive northeast of Mexico City are the magnificent ruins of Teotihuacan, dating from the beginning of the first millennium AD. Best known for two large, stepped pyramids (Pyramids of the Sun and Moon) and the smaller, more ornate Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, the ruins abound in numer- ous low, labyrinthine buildings which are decorated with beautiful and complex mural paintings. The comparatively well preserved Tepantitla murals are best known to scholars, a prominent segment

Abstract

Besides the ubiquitous patolli—a race game played on a cruciform gameboard—the Aztecs had obviously a few other board games. Unfortunately their names have not been recorded. We owe to Diego Durán, writing in the last quarter of the 16th century from local sources, some hints of what appears to be a “war game” and a second, different race game that he calls ‘fortuna’. A close examination of some Precolumbian codices shows a rectangular design with a chequered border, together with beans and gamepieces, which has correctly been interpreted as a board game. Many similar diagrams can be seen carved on stone in temples and public places, from Teotihuacan (c. 4th-7th century AD) to late Toltec times (9th-12th century AD). Of this game too we do not know the name. It has tentatively been called quauhpatolli (“eagle- or wooden-patolli”) by Christian Duverger (1978)—although this seems to have been the classic post-conquest Nahuatl name for the game of chess—or “proto-patolli”, and more concretely “rectángulo de cintas” (rectangle of bands) by William Swezey and Bente Bittman (1983).

The lack of any representation of this game in all Postcolumbian codices, as painted by Aztec artists commissioned by Spanish scholars interested in the Aztec culture, is clear indication that the game had disappeared before the Spanish conquest, at least in central Mexico. No Aztec site shows any such gameboard. Fortunately this game had survived until the 20th (and 21st!) century but located in the Tarascan country, now the state of Michoacán. It was discovered, unchanged, in a Tarascan (Purepecha) village by Ralph L. Beals and Pedro Carrasco, who published their find in 1944. At that time Beals and Carrasco had no idea the game was attested in early codices and Teotihuacan to Maya and Toltec archaeological sites. In Purepecha the game is called k’uillichi.

There is evidence of an evolution that led to a simplification of the game: less tracks, less gamesmen (in fact only one per player, while k’uillichi has four), and less ‘dice’. From a “complex” race game, the new debased version turned to be a simple single-track race game with no strategy at all. It is possible that this process took place in Michoacán. (A few examples of the simplified game were found in some Tarascan villages.) Also it seems the widespread use of the Nahua language, which the Spanish promoted, led to calling the game, and/or its dice, patol. As it was, patol proved to be very appealing and became very popular in the Mexican West, finally reaching the Noroeste, that is, the present North-West of Mexico and Southwest of the United States.

This seems to have been a recent trend, since its progress was observed with much detail by missionaries living in close contact with the Indians along what was called the ‘Camino Real’, the long highway that led from western Mexico to what is now New Mexico in the U.S. The Spanish themselves seem to have helped the game in its diffusion, unaware of its presence. It is clearly with the Spaniards that the patol game, sometimes also called quince (fifteen), reached the American Southwest and settled in the Pueblo and the Zuñi countries.

It is there that some newcomers, coming from the North or from the Great Plains, and getting in contact with the Pueblos in the 18th century, found the game and took it over. The Kiowas and Kiowa Apaches are noted for their zohn ahl (or tsoñä) game, while the Arapahos call it ne’bäku’thana. A careful examination of zohn ahl shows that it has kept the basic features of an ancient game that came—in Spanish times—from Mexico and may have been popular in Teotihuacan times. Its spread northward—through the Tarascan country—is, hopefully, well documented.

Maya and Teotihuacän Traits in Classic Maya Vase Painting of the Ρ&έη JACINTO Q U I R A R T E The designation of a painted vase as Maya rarely presents a problem for specialists. Several indices are used — presence of typically Maya glyphic notations, technique (type of ware, preparation of surface, shape of vessel), and form (easily identified "Maya configurations"). But what specifically makes Maya painting Maya? Or Teotihuacanoid? In order to arrive at a working definition several painted vases from the Peten sites of Uaxactun and Tikal as well as

Maya and Teotihuacan Traits in Classic Maya Vase Painting of the Peten J A C I N T O Q U I R A R T E The designation of a painted vase as Maya rarely presents a problem for specialists. Several indices are used - presence of typically Maya glyphic notations, technique (type of ware, preparation of surface, shape of vessel), and form (easily identified "Mayaconfigurations"). But what specifically makes Maya painting Maya? Or Teotihuacanoid? In order to arrive at a working definition several painted vases from the Peten sites of Uaxactun and Tikal as well

3 Preclassic Central Mexico: The Uncertain Pathway from Tlatilco to Teotihuacan david c. grove The Basin of Mexico, in Mexico’s central highlands, was the location of one of Mesoamerica’s greatest Classic period cities, Teotihuacan. Teoti- huacan was also one of Mesoamerica’s earliest state-level societies, and until recently many scholars assumed that Teotihuacan-Maya interactions played a significant role in the origin of Maya states (see Braswell 2003a). In spite of the importance of Teotihuacan—one of the largest cities in the world for its time

, G. E. (ed.) (2003): The Maya and Teotihuacan. Reinterpreting the Early Classic Interaction. Austin: University of Texas Press. CARRASCO, D. - JONES, L. SESSIONS, S. (2000): Mesoamerica’s Classic Heritage: From Teotihuacan to the Aztecs. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. COWGILL, G. L. (2003): Teotihuacan and Early Classic Interaction: A perspective from Outside the Maya Region. In Geoffrey E. Braswell (ed.), The Maya and Teotihuacan. Reinterpreting Early Classic Interactions, pp. 315-336, Austin: University of Texas Press. ESTRADA- BELLI, F. - TOKOVININE, A

von ca. 700 bzw. 300 Jahren Dauer aufteilte, und die in die Kultur von Teotihuacan einmünden. Die neuere archäologische Forschung faßt diesen ganzen Zeitraum unter dem Begriff des unteren, mittleren und oberen Präklassikums zusammen, das etwa von 1700—1000, von 1000—600 und von 600—100 vor Chr. anzusetzen ist, und das in seiner oberen Phase den Beginn der Kultur von Teotihuacan einschließt. Falsch in der Hypothese Vaillants vom Ablauf der Kulturen ist nur seine Gleichsetzung der Teotihuacan-Kultur mit den Tolteken. In der indianischen Tradition, die in

. 'Tongue-in-Belly' d. Drawing of group with other 'Monsters', e. Scenes from mediaeval manuscript of Marco Polo's travels f. Reproduction of the 'Folk with but One Foot' from The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, Kt. 65/67 13 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig. 12 Map of the Chukotka region and chart of mushroom shapes. 69 Fig. 13 N.N.Dikov, copying petroglyphs and view of mushroom carvings. 70 Fig. 14 One-sided man, or 'unilateral figure', or 'halfling'. 80 CHAPTER FIVE Fig. 1 'Predella' from Zacuala, Teotihuacan, repainted by the late Abel Mendoza. 141 Fig. 2 Drops of entheogenic