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The Martyrdom of Diego Ortiz (1571) by Antonio de la Calancha [1638]

3 Appendix II: Maps 3.1 Tawantinsuyo Quito to Cuzco   113 3.2 Quito to Cuzco 114   Appendix II: Maps 3.3 Vilcabamba

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Contents Acknowledgments VIII Part I: The Collapse of Time and the Destruction of Vilcabamba 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Invasion and Conquest of Tawantinsuyo (Peru) 2 1.2 Titu Cusi Yupanqui and the Politics of State 23 1.3 Missionary Activity and the Augustinian Order in Sixteenth-Century Peru 38 1.4 The Collapse of Time: The Martyrdom of Diego Ortiz and the Destruction of Vilcabamba (1572 AD) 55 1.4.1 The Collapse of Time 58 1.4.2 Kairos and Chronos 60 1.4.3 Diego Ortiz and the Destructions of Vilcabamba and Jerusalem: The Teleological Context 62 1

3 Diseases and Separatism Like Spaniards, Andean elites were ambivalent and internally divided over the post-conquest regime of indirect rule. The Vilcabamba rebels preferred war to accommodation with the Spaniards. Their stance was sometimes defensive, sometimes offensive, and sometimes (as with Titu Cusi) a negotiating position. By choosing confrontation, however, they differentiated themselves from those who acquiesced to the colonial order. Provincial curacas bent on maximizing their power as intermedi- ary rulers had been the most enthusiastic

antipathy between Almagro and the Pizarros degenerated into civil war. Almagro was defeated and executed by Hernando Pizarro in 1538 at the battle of Salinas. Anaya, Atilano de: a citizen of Cuzco entrusted with the care of the estates of Beatriz Clara Coya (daughter of Sayri Tupac) after she was rescued from the Maldonado family. He acted as emissary to Titu Cusi Yupanqui (along with the Augustinian friars Juan de Vivero and Marcos García) and witnessed his baptism at Guarancalla in 1568. Given his connections to Titu Cusi, he was sent as emissary to Vilcabamba by

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Contents List of Illustrations xi Acknowledgments xiii Note on Orthography xvii 1 Introduction 3 Theorizing Colonial Power 7 Andean Ancestral Cultures 14 Early Modern Spanish Ancestral Culture 21 Theorizing Interaction 27 2 Viracochas: Ancestors, Deities, and Apostles 36 Brief Chronology of the Spanish Invasion 37 Conquest or Alliance? 43 Spaniards as Viracochas 48 Viracocha as Apostle 71 3 Diseases and Separatism 81 The Taqui Oncoy, 1564–65 82 Vilcabamba 85 The Rediscovery of 1569 91 The Taqui Oncoy, 1569–71 94 Aftermaths 106 4 Reducción and the Struggle over

’ GENEALOGIES Túpac Amaru’s vaunted bona fides stemmed from his alleged unbro- ken descent from doña Juana Pilcohuaco Coya and her marriage to a cacique of Surimana, Pampamarca and Tungasuca, Diego Felipe Con- dorcanqui.27 Doña Juana was an hija natural – but not, Túpac Amaru insisted, a bastarda – of the last Vilcabamba Inca ruler, Felipe Túpac Amaru, granddaughter of Manco Inca and great-granddaughter of Huayna Capac. This made her first cousin to doña Beatriz Clara Coya, wife of St. Ignatius’ cousin Martín García de Loyola, and mother of the first Marquis of Oropesa, doña

bewies45, kam es auch zu ernstlichen indianischen Widerständen. Aber das hoch- organisierte System des Inka-Staates mußte machtmäßig versagen, weil das Ober- haupt, auf das allein es gestellt war, versagt hatte. Nachher war es zu spät. Anführer aus Inka-Geblüt wehrten sich zwar und hatten Gefolgschaft. Ja, bis 1570 führte der Inka-Staat in der entlegenen Gebirgsprovinz Vilcabamba noch ein gewisses Fortleben, nachdem der von Pizarro eingesetzte Inka Manco Capac II., seines Scheinkönigtums von Pizarros Gnaden müde, rebelliert und sich nach einjähriger vergeblicher

tres de los virreyes: Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, Marqués de Cañete; Luis de Velasco, Marqués de Salinas; y Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marqués de Montesclaros. No los he seleccionado arbitrariamente. El primer Marqués de Cañete virreinó en una época de cruciales eventos: tanto en Lima como en Madrid habı́a gran preocupación sobre el futuro del Perú, asediado por descontentos conquistadores y amenazado por el estado neo-inca de Vilcabamba. Destacaré el juicio de Guaman Poma sobre el virrey Hurtado de Mendoza y su perı́odo administrativo en tanto los planes de

environmental gradients theory and a preliminary interpretation of distributional patterns in the avifauna of the Cordillera Vilcabamba, Peru. Ecology 52(1): 23–40. DOI: 10.2307/1934735 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1934735 [71] Terborgh J. & Weske J.S. 1975. The role of competition in the distribution of Andean birds. Ecology 56(3): 562–576. DOI: 10.2307/1935491 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1935491 [72] Terborgh J. 1977. Bird species diversity on an Andean elevational gradient. Ecology 58(5): 1007–1019. DOI: 10.2307/1936921 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1936921 [73] Tiwari A