establish whether there are significant differences and similarities in intentions among students in Visegradcountries by using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour and the database of the GUESSS (Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey) project survey of 2016. II Literature review Within the promotion of entrepreneurship across Europe, special attention is paid to young people who are considering starting their own businesses. The findings of research studies into entrepreneurship reveal that students with higher education degrees establish their
References ANDERSON, K. - JHA, S. - NELGEN, S. 2013. Re-examining policies for food security in Asia. In Food Security, vol. 5, 2013, no. 2, p. 195-215. BBC NEWS EUROPE. 2014. Russia’s trade ties with Europe. Accessed at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26436291 on August, 27, 2014. BIELIK, P. - SMUTKA, L. - HORSKA, E. 2012. Development of Mutual Agricultural Trade of Visegrad Group Countries. In Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development, vol. 1, 2012, no. 1, p. 2-11. BOZSIK, N. 2014. The state of agri-food export of the Visegradcountries
The utilization of renewable energy sources has an increasing role in the EU’s climate and energy policy. There are several reasons for increasing the use of renewable energy. The motives are the reduction of imported dependence on fossil fuels, mitigation of the adverse environmental impact of the energy sector and boosting of industrial development. The study provides a comprehensive overview on the structure and utilization of energy production of the Visegrad countries, focusing on the dependence on energy imports. The purpose of the article is to analyze the gross inland energy consumption of the Visegrad countries and to examine the relationship between renewables and non-renewable energy sources. In the course of the analysis, we tried to find out which non-renewable energy carrier is replaced by the renewables.
capital in the Visegrádcountries. In: Centre for Economic and Regional Studies HAS Institute of World Economics Working Paper, No. 210, pp. 1-55. Kuznetsov, A., 2008: Pryamye inostrannye investitsii: ‘effekt sosedstva’ (Foreign Direct Investment: Neighbourhood Effect - in Russian). In: Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodniye Otnosheniya, Issue 9, pp. 40-47. Kuznetsov, A. and Chetverikova, A., 2007: Vostochnoevropeiskie strany ES: kuda idut ikh investitsii. In: Sovremennaya Evropa (East-European EU member states: where their investments go to - in Russian). In
Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.
The agri-food export of the Visegrad countries has increased significantly since 2004. Since their EU accession the agri-food export of the V4 countries did not only grow - disregarding the setback in 2009 - but the EU has become their dominating market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the market position of the agri-food products of the Visegrad countries in the EU market. On the basis of the Constant Market Share (CMS) model it can be stated that in the case of each and every country the significant positive competitiveness effect, the value of which was between 58% and 70%, triggered the expansion of the agri-food export. The positive market size effect also played an important role in the growth of the export. For the Visegrad countries this meant 30-40%. However, the structural effect was negligible for each country (-1-4%). This means that the export structure of the Visegrad countries could not adjust properly to the changes of the import structure of the EU markets. On the basis of quality competitiveness the agri-food product groups of the V4 countries - with very few exceptions - have increased their market share in EU markets, which was primarily attainable because of the rising export prices. However, some achieved an increased market share with decreasing export prices. .
SMEs are a major provider of jobs, contribute to promoting the social and economic cohesion of regions and, in particular, they are important for regions facing high unemployment or lower economic development. The importance of assessing a company’s financial performance has been steadily rising in recent years. The paper aims to evaluate to what extent the financial situation of a company, especially the risk of financial distress and bankruptcy, is influenced by the macroeconomic environment defined by fundamental macroeconomic variables. The analysis of the interrelationships will be carried out at the national level for Visegrad countries. The criterion for financial distress is defined not only by capital restructuring of the company or extensive layoffs, but also as the results of the negative effect of the macroeconomic environment. To achieve the goal of the paper, predictive bankruptcy models of financial distress based on financial analysis of enterprises will be used as well as regression analysis and correlation analysis. The observed period for analyses will be from 2009 to 2016. It seems appropriate to pay particular attention to examining the impact of economic growth, and the exchange rate on the financial situation of the enterprise. These indicators play an important role in defining internal and external economic equilibrium, which is also reflected in the functioning of individual businesses and sectors. Based on the results of the GMM analysis, it was found that only in the case of the Czech Republic was it possible to follow statistically significant relationships between the selected indicators.
The aim of our study is to compare Visegrad countries and the other EU member states regarding sustainable development, based on the system of Sustainable Development Indicators of the European Union. We provide a brief overview of almost two decades of elaborating the Sustainable Development Strategy of the Community, review the structure and the main elements of the strategic document, and – using the method of cluster analyses – we group the member states comparing them on the basis of specific headline indicators. Our goal was not a deep investigation, but a compact, thought-provoking analysis; this is the reason why we concentrated on the main indicators. As a result of the analysis, our hypothesis seems to be confirmed: the EU-15 countries and the rest of the member states belong to different clusters, which means that there are significant inequalities, especially from the economic and social aspects of sustainability.
The paper looks at the political party scene in Visegrad countries before and after the influx of refugees and compares how much the negative reactions were instrumentalised not only by the extremist and radical right parties but by the newly emerged populist formations as well as the well-established mainstream parties across the whole political spectra. Until the “migration crisis”, the far right parties focused mainly on Roma issue, anti-Semitism, anti-communism, anti-establishment and used anti-NATO, anti-EU, anti-German, anti-Czech, anti-Slovak or anti-Hungarian card. Since 2015, the parties re-oriented against immigrants, more precisely against the Muslims presenting them as a threat and also increased their criticism on the EU. However, the mainstream parties also accepted far right topics and actively promoted them. The result is then mainstreaming of xenophobia, nationalism and marginalization of far right parties as their flexible voters move to the populist subjects.
References Atkinson, A.B. (2015). Inequality: What Can Be Done? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 400. Benedek, J. and Kocziszky, G. (2015). Paths of Convergence and Polarization in the VisegrádCountries. In: Lang, T., Henn, S., Sgibnev, W. and Ehrlich, K. Understanding Geographies of Polarization and Peripheralization , Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 217-234. Blažek, J. and Uhlíř, D. (2011). Teorie regionálního rozvoje (Theories of regional development – in Czech). Praha: Karolinum, 342. Brunet, R. (2011). Sustainable Geography. London: ISTE