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As a case study contributing to empirical and inductive specifications of the jus post bellum principle for reparations, the author conducts an analysis of a provision of the Treaty of Peace with Japan that mandates that Japan make reparations from attached Japanese assets in neutral and ex-Axis countries to compensate the Allied prisoners of war. This study’s findings elucidate the legal significance of the provision that war reparations can be qualitatively alleviated by virtue of substituting assets for pecuniary reparations, hence presenting inductive substantiation for implementing the jus post bellum principle for reparations.

284 Roger P. Alford Roger P. Alford War Reparations, the Holocaust, and the ICC I would like to focus my discussion on the International Criminal Court in the context of war reparations generally, both past, present, and future. I should begin by emphasizing that while international law is exceptionally good at dealing with certain issues relating to international wrongs, but it is exceptionally bad at dealing with others. International law can deal with revolutions, catastrophes, and lesser evils we euphemistically call acts of God. But when the fury of

6 From war reparations to luxury cruise liners Production changes and labour relations at the Turku shipyard (Finland) between 1950 and 2010 Kari Teräs Introduction This chapter analyses how production reforms and labour relations of the shipbuilding industry in Turku were interrelated in the shipyard of Crichton-Vulcan in the post-1945 period. In addition, shipyard work and its wider local and national effects, as well as their connections to the global development of shipbuilding, are examined. One of the objectives of this chapter is to reflect on the


Zu den ungelösten Folgeproblemen des deutsch-sowjetischen Kriegs gehört der schwierige Komplex von Beutekunst und Kunstrestitution. Trotz langjähriger Verhandlungen konnten beide Seiten hier zu keiner Übereinkunft finden. Frank Grelka untersucht im vorliegenden Aufsatz Konzepte, Ansprüche und die Durch-führung der sowjetischen Kunstrequisition in Deutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg und kann zeigen, dass diese über das Prinzip der restitution in kind deutlich hinausgingen.

LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS Tables 1 Japanese Trade and US Aid for Japanese Imports, 1945-1951 7 2 Special Procurements by the United States, England, and France in Japan, 1950-1957 7 3 Japanese Income from ICA-based Procurements, 1952-1961 8 4 Japanese Trade by Areas, 1930-1950 10 5 Japanese Trade with the Far East and Southeast Asia, 1934-1953 12 6 Japanese War Reparations and Equivalent Aid to Asian Countries 15 7 Contents of Japanese Grants (War Reparations) to South Vietnam 19 8 Japanese Trade with the French Currency Zone (including Indochina), 1949-1950 9


CONTENTS Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 Chapter 1 THE PERIOD PRIOR TO 1973 1. Prewar Relations 3 2. The San Francisco Peace Treaty 4 3. Japanese Economic Expansion and Southeast Asia 6 4. War Reparations to the Saigon Government 14 5. Economic Relations with South Vietnam during the 1950s and Early 1960s 20 6. Japanese Asian Policy in the Mid-1960s 25 7. Economic Relations with South Vietnam during the Late 1960s and Early 1970s 31 8. The Vietnam War and Japan 33 9. Unofficial Relations with North Vietnam before 1973 38 2 JAPANESE ATTITUDES TOWARD VIETNAM FROM

péicháng bǐjiào yánjiū” 日本与德国战后赔偿比较研究 [Comparative research on Japan’s and Germany’s post-war reparations]. In Shìjiè jīngjì yù zhèngzhì 世界经济与政治 [World economy and politics], no. 9, 1995, pp. 52-57, 87 Jīng, Zhōng 京中. “Dì wǔ jiè jìn bǎi nián zhōngrì guānxishǐ guójì yántǎohuì zōngshù” 第五届近百年中日关系史国际研讨会综述 [Summary of the Fifth International Symposium on the History of Almost 100 Years of Sino-Japanese Relations]. In Kàngrì zhànzhēng yánjiū 抗日战争研 究 [Journal of studies on China’s war of resistance against Japan], no. 4, 1998, pp. 191-197 Lǐ, Yè 李晔. “Dì wǔ jiè jìn bǎi nián

-Neisse line, another part concentrated in the western part of the WNT. A number of the refugees were captured by the front and forced to remain there or return, while many Germans were taken by the Red Army to the USSR under the "war reparations". Part of the German and native population were expelled by the newly established Polish administration and looters, while the Oder- Neisse boundary was depopulated and secured by military settlers (Boh- mann); all this was done prior to the Potsdam decisions. After the termination of the hostilities — in summer and autumn of

infrastructural spare parts. These minimum recommendations, however, were rejected by the US and UK members of the Security Council, who agreed to only $3.2 billion a year total permitted revenues (SCR 706). Of this, one-third was to be channeled to war reparations and UN administrative costs, leaving $1.87 billion a year (approximately 19 cents per capita a day) for food, medicines, and all other basic needs: less than one-third the minimum amount which had been recommended as urgently required.23 This, despite an advisory report to the Secretary-General which

political economy of road and rail transport in interwar Britain and Germany, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge 2007. 17 This is particular true for the question of war reparations in Germany. For reasons of nationalism and foreign policy contemporary actors exaggerated the issue and later commentators have often failed to provide a balanced assessment of the financial demands on the German Railways, however see the excellent work in A.C. Mierzejewski, The Most Valuable Asset of the Reich: a History of the German National Railway, vol. 1,1920-1932, Chapel Hill