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References [1] Nagels JW, Colley D, Smith DG. A water quality index for contact recreation in New Zealand. Water Sci Technol. 2001;43(5):285-292. [2] Sargaonkar A, Deshpande V. Development of an overall index of pollution for surfacewater based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environ Monit Assess. 2003;89(1):43-67. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025886025137. [3] Abbasi T, Abbasi SA. Water Quality Indices. Elsevier B.V.; 2012. [4] Kumar A, Dua A. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river Ravi at Madhopur (India).Global J Environ Sci

1 Introduction Impairment of the quality of water resources is related to natural and anthropogenic phenomena [ 4 ]. Anthropic interferences are associated with the release of domestic effluents, industrial effluents and diffuse urban and agricultural load [ 4 , 5 ], while marked natural interferences include relief, fauna, flora and precipitation events that transport particles and impurities to watercourses [ 6 ]. The impacts caused by these phenomena can be evaluated using Water Quality Indexes (WQIs), which express, in a simple and objective way, the quality

), 121-125. American Public Health Association (APHA) 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, (20th ed.), APHA, Washington DC, 2005-2605. Asiwaju-Bello, Y.A., Oladeji, O.S. 2001. Numerical modelling of ground water flow patterns within Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Mining and Geology 37 , 185-194. Bharti, N., Katyal, D. 2011.Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment. Inter. J Environ. Sci 2 (1),154-173. Boyacioglu, H. 2007. Development of a water quality index based on a European classification

regions and represent different aspects of quality. Furthermore, it can be difficult to convey relevant water quality information to policy makers and the general public, who do not always have technical knowledge about the components of waterbody health. To overcome these obstacles, analysts developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) (Brown, McClelland, Deininger and Tozer, 1970) to transmit complex water quality information. The EPA has used the WQI for the past few decades to quantify and monetize water quality changes in several of its Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs

), DO (dissolved oxygen), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, electrical conductivity (EC), total alkalinity. Four parameters, particularly pH, DO, turbidity, EC is measured in the field with the specific probe make of HATCH and other parameters are tested in the laboratory of School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University prescribed by APHA guideline. Testing results are considered for calculation of water quality index with two different methods to assess health conditions of Amda wetland with respect to the purposes. In this survey, LANDSAT images are

World Fresh Water Resources . New York, Oxford University Press, USA. Gupta, A. – Mall, R.K. – Singh, R. – Rathore, L.S. – Singh, R.S. (2006) Water resources and climate change: An Indian Perspective . Current Science, Vol. 90, No. 12, pp. 1610-1626. Mishra P.S. – Rout, P. (2009) Assessment of Water Quality Index in Mahanadi and Atharabanki Rivers and Taldanda Canal in Paradip Area, India . Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 153-161. Rao, K.L. (1997) India’s Water Wealth Its Assessment, Uses and Projections . Orient Long –man, New Delhi, India, pp. 39

growth because of the presence of a substrate. This paper presents a research method for determining biostability, related water quality indexes, and limited factors on bacteria regrowth, therefore this will enable water plants to incorporate this approach for water quality safe needs. Using data from sampling sites, AOC and residual chlorine were applicable to control regrowth of HPC in chlorinated systems where AOC and phosphorus are the growth limiting substrate. Keywords: Assimilable organic carbon, Phophurus, Biostability, Water distribution system, Water

involves the oxidation of organic matter in a sample so that only silica walls of diatom cells remain. The empty frustules were then mounted and analyzed for their morphology. Standard references were followed for taxonomic identification (Bellinger & Sigee 2015; Wehr 2002 ; Cox 1996 ; Prescott 1962 ; Desikachary 1959 ; Tiffany & Britton 1952 ; Transeau 1951 ; Collins 1909 ). Water Quality Index The Water Quality Index (WQI) was used to determine the class and status of the river ( Mitchell and Stapp 1992 ). WQI = Σ SIi $${\rm{WQI}} = \Sigma {\rm{SIi}}$$ The 100

. To measure the N isotopes of macroalgae, dried weighed samples (about 2.1–2.6 mg for L. variegata and 1.5–1.9 mg for T. oblongata ) were analyzed using an elemental analyzer (ElementarVario EL III) connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Finnigan Delta Plus XL). All samples were measured twice, and the final averaged results are expressed as parts per mil (‰) relative to atmospheric N 2 . The analytical precision for δ 15 N-values was ±0.3‰. Statistical analysis The water quality index (WQI) was used as a composite measure of water quality along the


Water quality parameters were measured in Acı Lake. The measurements were carried out in water samples taken from five different stations over ten months. According to the results of the analyses done on the samples of water, without taking into consideration the differences of seasons and stations, the average annual values of heavy metal concentrations for Cr, Cu and Ni were found to be 0.10 mg/l, 0.11 mg/l and 0.19 mg/l dry weight, respectively. Surprisingly, Co and Cd metals were not detected at any station or at any season. Other water quality parameters, namely pH, turbidity and nitrate, fall in the intermediate value range for these measures. The comparisons of the measured parameters and the metal concentration with the water quality index show that the water quality of Acı Lake prevents the water being used as irrigation water due to high salt levels.